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Full text of "Handbook of marks on pottery [and] porcelain"

J- 



HANDBOOK OF MARKS ON POTTERY 
AND PORCELAIN 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

LONDON BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS 

MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO 
DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD 

TORONTO 



b 

HANDBOOK 



OF 



MARKS ON POTTERY 
& PORCELAIN 



BY 



W. BURTON, M.A. 



AUTHOR OF ' A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF ENGLISH PORCELAIN," ' A HISTORY AND 
* DESCRIPTION OF ENGLISH EARTHENWARE AND STONEWARE,' 

' PORCELAIN, ITS MANUFACTURE,' ETC. 

AND 

R. L. HOBSON, B.A. 

AUTHOR OF THE GUIDE TO, AND CATALOGUES OF, THE POTTERY AND PORCELAIN 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, ' PORCELAIN ORIENTAL, CONTINENTAL, 

AND BRITISH,' ETC. 



! 9 <) o a S 

at 3 a 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON 

1919 



COPYRIGHT 

First Edition 1909 
Reprinted zvith additions 1912, 1919 



INTRODUCTION 

THE ardent collector of Pottery or Porcelain, even when he 
has long passed his "novitiate," constantly feels the need of a 
reliable pocket volume containing the authentic and indisputable 
marks of the pottery and porcelain of the best " collectors' " 
periods. It has been our aim to supply such a volume in a 
condensed and practical form. The only marks given in this 
book are those which are beyond dispute. The arrangement 
is geographical, the different species of ware being separately 
treated wherever practicable ; but, by elaborate indices, ready 
reference has been provided to each mark, as well as to each 
factory. In addition, a condensed account of the important 
productions of every country prefaces each section of the 
work. The aim, throughout, has been to render the work as 
complete and self-contained as such a pocket manual can be ; 
though, in his study, the collector will naturally turn for fuller 
information to the important histories or monographs, such 
as those mentioned in the bibliography. 

It has been assumed that the collector is acquainted with 
the broad distinctions of Simple Pottery, Faience, Stoneware, 
and Porcelain. The terms are used here in a very definite 
way. 

SIMPLE POTTERY includes all the forms of earthenware 

whether made from white or coloured clays, glazed 

with a transparent lead glaze. 
FAIENCE includes all the forms of earthenware, coated 

with tin-enamel, such as Majolica, Delft, and their 

related types. 



vi POTTERY MARKS 

STONEWARE includes the hard, vitrified and impermeable 
kinds of earthenware, whether Rhenish, English, or 
Oriental. 

PORCELAINS are the translucent and (generally) white 
forms of pottery. 

The porcelains are classified in the customary way, as 
hard-paste or soft-paste. The hard-paste group includes such 
well-defined types as the Chinese, Japanese, German, and 
modern Continental porcelains. The soft-paste group includes 
all the porcelains in which the fired body is distinctly softer 
than in the former group. The soft-paste porcelains comprise 
two distinct varieties, which are of widely different value to 
the collector. 

A. The soft-paste glassy porcelains (invaluable on account 

of their quality and rarity), such as those made at 
Florence (sixteenth century), Rouen (seventeenth 
century), and the early French and English porcelains 
(eighteenth century) ; 

B. The soft bone-paste porcelains, such as the English 

porcelains made in the later eighteenth and through- 
out the nineteenth century. 

So much attention has been paid to marks that it may be 
necessary to state clearly the exact value of a mark. Other 
things being equal, a marked example of any period is more 
valuable than an unmarked one. But the mark alone must 
not be considered as the sole criterion of excellence or even 
market value. Unfortunately since factory or workmen's 
marks have become general, quite a large proportion of pieces 
have been sent out without any distinctive mark, especially in 
byegone centuries. This has been the opportunity of the 
forger and " faker," and the reader is earnestly warned to be 
on his guard against their abominable cleverness. The marks 
which are most difficult to imitate, and are in that respect 
most reliable, are those which occur under the glaze ; as was 
generally the case before the eighteenth century. During the 
eighteenth century there was a gradual introduction of marks 
painted, printed, or stencilled over the glaze, and this practice 



INTRODUCTION vii 

has been increasingly followed, with some exceptions, to the 
present day. 

The under-glaze marks are of two kinds : (a) those stamped 
or incised in the body of the ware while it is still soft. These 
are perhaps the most reliable of all marks, for once made it is 
very difficult to remove or alter them. They may, however, 
be so imperfectly formed, or have been so obliterated by the 
glaze as to be deciphered with difficulty, (b) Marks painted 
under the glaze. This is the most important class of marks, 
being found on Oriental porcelain, Persian earthenware, 
European faience, and nearly every kind of European pottery 
and porcelain. Down to the end of the eighteenth century, 
practically all under-glaze marks were in blue (the most avail- 
able colour), and it is only in the nineteenth century, as a rule, 
that under-glaze marks in black, pink, or green are found. 
Many of these later marks are printed and not painted. In 
all the old wares, where not otherwise specified, it may be 
taken for granted that the mark is painted in blue. 

With the introduction of over-glaze, or enamel, colours and 
gilding in the eighteenth century we get an increasing use of 
marks in the same style. The fact that these marks are 
painted over the glaze detracts greatly from their value, for 
several reasons. Such marks are easily added to any piece of 
pottery or porcelain, as they can be fired at a temperature 
that will not seriously impair the previous decoration. 
Genuine over-glaze marks can be readily removed and a more 
valuable mark substituted, so that they cannot be regarded in 
themselves as being so safe and trustworthy as those which 
occur under the glaze. 

The marks themselves consist of factory names, or trade- 
marks as they are called nowadays, the signatures of potters, 
painters, or gilders, with or without dates and descriptive 
notes, placed in some inconspicuous place, occasionally in the 
design, but generally under the base of the piece. Some of 
them, especially the early ones, afford precise information as 
to the origin of the piece on which they occur, but others are 
mere workmen's signs or pattern marks, or numbers which are 
of little value unless supported by other evidence. The 



viii POTTERY MARKS 

tendency of many old factories (and some modern ones) to 
borrow each other's marks, or to adopt signs similar to those. 
in use at some more famous works, is a source of endless 
confusion which can only be avoided by a knowledge of the 
wares themselves. 

The period covered extends roughly from the Middle Ages 
to 1850, though a selection of certain modern marks has been 
included, especially of such wares as are already finding favour 
with collectors. No attempt has been made to reproduce the 
exact size of the individual marks, because of the constant 
variations in size and form of the same painted mark on 
different pieces. Stamped and written names have been 
reproduced in Roman and Italic types respectively, except in 
those cases where striking individuality of script rendered a 
direct copy necessary. Each new factory, or group of factories, 
as it occurs is printed in conspicuous type. The dates given 
for the European wares require no explanation, but in the 
Oriental sections, with which especial pains have been taken, 
the dates are those of the actual specimen from which the 
mark was copied. These Oriental marks cannot be regarded 
as date- marks when they are mere symbols or benevolent 
expressions. 

Special acknowledgments are due to M. Papillon, the 
author of the Guide to the Ceramic Museum at Sevres, for 
permission to use his complete list of Sevres Marks ; to 
Professor E. S. Morse, for a similar courtesy with regard to his 
invaluable Catalogue of the Japanese Pottery in the Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A. ; to Dr. C. H. Read, for a 
number of Oriental marks; to Mr. Arthur Hayden, for a 
number of Copenhagen marks ; to the Pottery Gazette and 
to Mr. E. Sheldon, for many English marks ; and to Mrs. 
Hobson, for assisting in the compilation of the Indices. 

W. B. 
R. L. H. 



CONTENTS 

PAGES 

ITALIAN MAIOLICA . . . . . . . 1-22 

ITALIAN PORCELAIN . . . . 22-24 

GERMAN POTTERY . . . .' 25-32 

GERMAN PORCELAIN ...... 33-39 

AUSTRIA- HUNGARY 40-41 

HOLLAND . . . . . ' . . . 43-50 

BELGIUM . . . . . i' . 50-51 

SCANDINAVIA . . . . . . . 52-53 

RUSSIA 53-54 

SWITZERLAND . . . . . . .. 54-55 

ALSACE-LORRAINK ....... 55-56 

FRENCH POTTERY 57-7i 

FRENCH PORCELAIN . . . . . 72-88 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL ..... 89-92 

BRITISH PORCELAIN ... . 93-101 

BRITISH POTTERY 102-114 

AMERICA .114-115 

MODERN BRITISH MARKS . . 116-119 



x POTTERY MARKS 

PAGES 

PERSIA AND THE NEAR EAST . . . . 121-125 

CHINESE PORCELAIN . . . . . . 127-151 

CHINESE POTTERY 152 

JAPANESE POTTERY 153-179 

JAPANESE PORCELAIN 181-191 

INDEX OF NAMES. ...... 193-199 

INDEX OF INITIALS 201-204 

INDEX OF MARKS OTHER THAN NAMES OR INITIALS 205-206 

INDEX OF ORIENTAL MARKS AND NAMES . . 207-210 

INDEX OF ADDITIONAL NAMES . . . . 211-212 

INDEX OF ADDITIONAL INITIALS . . . . 212 
INDEX OF ADDITIONAL MARKS OTHER THAN 

NAMES AND INITIALS . . . . . 213 

INDEX OF ADDITIONAL ORIENTAL MARKS . . 213 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK. 

h.p. = hard-paste porcelain, 
s.p. = soft-paste porcelain, 
p. = painted. 
pr. = printed, 
inc. = incised. 

imp. = impressed or stamped, 
st. = stencilled. 



WORKS OF REFERENCE CONSULTED 

Auscher, E. S., A History and Description of French Porcelain. 

Barber, E. A., Marks of American Potters. 

Berling, F. , Das Meissner Porzellan und seine Geschichte. 

Brinckmann, J., Fiihrer durch das hamburgisches Museum fur Kunst und 

Gewerbe. 
Burton, W., A History and Description of English Porcelain. 

A History and Description of English Earthenware and Stoneware. 
Bushell, S. W., Chinese Art. Vol. II. Victoria and Albert Museum 

Handbooks. 

Chaffers, W., Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain. 
Church, A. H., The Catalogue of the Schreiber Collection. 

English Earthenware. 

English Porcelain. 

In series of Victoria and Albert Museum Handbooks. 
Fortnum, C. D., Maiolica. 

Fouquct, D., Contribution a 1'etude de la ceramique orientale. 
Franks, Sir A. W., Catalogue of a Collection of Continental Porcelain at 
the Bethnal Green Museum. 

Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental Porcelain and Pottery. 

Japanese Pottery. 

Graesse-Jaennicke, Guide de 1'amateur de porcelaines et de poteries. 
Havard, H., La Faience de Delft. 
Hayden, A. , Royal Copenhagen Porcelain. 
Hobson, R. L., The Catalogue of English Pottery in the British Museum. 

The Catalogue of English Porcelain in the British Museum. 
Jaennicke, F. 

Grundriss der Keramik. 

Deutches Steinzeug, Mettlacher Museum. 
Jewitt, LI., The Ceramic Art of Great Britain. 
Morse, Prof. E. S., Catalogue of Japanese Pottery in the Museum of Fine 

Arts. Boston, U.S.A. 

Pazaurek, G., Mitteilungen des nordbohmischen Gewerbe-Museum. 
Solon, L. M. , German Stoneware. 

A History and Description of the Old French Faience. 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA 

THE term MAIOLICA is applied in these pages to the decorated 
Italian pottery made from the fifteenth century onwards, though 
it is often used to embrace certain kinds of ware to which the 
name is not strictly applicable, viz. mezza-maiolica, graffiato wares, 
and the later lead-glazed, white earthenwares of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. 

MEZZA-MAIOLICA is the name given to a common buff 
earthenware, coated with a wash of white clay (slip), and painted 
in simple, often crude tints of green, blue, and purplish brown, 
under a thin colourless glaze. It was the precursor of true maiolica. 

GRAFFIATO ware is a mezza-maiolica, with a substantial coating 
of white slip, which was decorated by scratching or cutting out a 
pattern through this slip-covering, so as to disclose the buff or 
red body beneath colours, if used at all, were usually added in 
patches or washes and in any case the ware was finished with a 
clear, straw-coloured, lead glaze. This, like the painted mezza- 
maiolica, was a very early type of product, which, however, has 
continued in use, in the north of Italy especially, to the present 
time. 

MAIOLICA proper was fashioned in a buff ware, more carefully 
prepared and closer in texture than mezza-maiolica, and is coated 
with a white, opaque layer of tin-enamel (instead of slip), on which 
the painter laid his colours : the later and more delicately painted 
maiolica was finished with an additional thin coat of colourless 
glaze, applied over the fired colours, like the varnish over a picture. 
Up to the eighteenth century one firing sufficed for the colours 
and the tin-enamel, and only such pigments could be used as 
would stand the full heat of the maiolica kiln. The marks, on 
wares of this period, are almost always in blue. 

"E B 



2 POTTERY MARKS 

Early in the eighteenth century a new process was introduced. 
The body and its tin -enamel coating were baked and finished 
first, then the decoration was applied to the fired surface in on- 
the-glaze colours, which were fixed at a comparatively low heat 
in the enamelling kiln. From this time marks in various colours 
on the glaze became common. 

The most famous period of true maiolica was from about 1500 
to 1560 when the typical decoration consisted of pictorial subjects 
copied from engravings after the great Italian painters. The 
marks at this period are often very elaborate, and tell us not only 
the name of the painter of the piece, but the botega or factory in 
which he worked, the name of the master under whom he served, 
and the title of his subject. Hence the frequent occurrence of 
such words (sometimes in contracted form) as botega, maestro, 
vasaro (potter), pictor, fatto (made), fecit, pinxit, etc. On the 
lustred wares of Diruta and Gubbio the mark is usually in lustre. 
Maestro Giorgio Andreoli of Gubbio (q.v.} was famed for his skill 
in the production of lustres, especially ruby lustre, and the potters 
of other towns sometimes sent their pieces to Gubbio, after they 
had been painted and fired, to be embellished with lustre by 
Giorgio. Such pieces bear Giorgio's mark in lustre, in addition 
to the mark or signature of the original painter, which is in blue. 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN 

THE earliest European porcelain, of which marked examples are 
known, was made at Florence under the patronage of Francesco 
Maria di Medici in the last half of the sixteenth century, and is 
called " Medici Porcelain." This " Medici " porcelain owed its 
translucence to the glass used in its preparation. It is among 
the rarest of ceramic treasures, and an authentic specimen is 
worth many times its weight in gold. Nothing more is heard 
of Italian porcelain until about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, when the rage for porcelain manufacture was at its 
height in Europe. 

Hard porcelain in imitation of the celebrated Meissen porcelain, 
as well as soft-paste porcelain, was then made at Venice successively 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN 3 

by Vezzi, Hewelche, and the Cozzi family. The more famous 
porcelain made at Doccia (1737 onwards) was a soft paste during 
the early years of the factory, but a hard paste was made afterwards, 
and the same may be said of the royal factory, started at Capo 
di Monte in 1743, and subsequently transferred to Naples. At 
Treviso and Vinovo another kind of porcelain, containing silicate 
of magnesia, was produced for a few years at the end of the 
eighteenth century. This ware has a yellowish waxen appearance 
which is peculiar to certain Italian and Spanish factories. 



4 ITALIAN MAIOLICA FLORENCE, CAFFAGGIOLO 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


f<r 


Graffiato Ware 

Citta di Castello 
or Perugia 
c. 1520 


f PS 


Caffaggiolo or 
Faenza 
c. 1500 


HD 


G.F.F. 1560 




* * 




PI GIVLIE A SFORZZA 
M. F. 


c. 1650 


O| 


,, c. 1510 


V 


IOHANNES. ANTONIUS. 
BARNABAS. CUTIUS. 
PAPI^NSIS 


1676 

and other members 
of the Cuzio family 
at Pavia 


< 


,, c. 1510-20 
(Monogram of 
P.L.A.T.) 


1734 la 26 marzo 
Pavia 










Maiolica proper. 


7& 


,, 1515-20 




Tuscany 


/A 






Caffaggiolo or 
Florence 


i- 


,, 1500-20 




1491 


/ J 




V 


Florence 
1 5th cent. 


h 


? Caffaggiolo 
1507 




Caffaggiolo 


nIA 


Caffaggiolo 




c. 1500 


( ^ 




I5**9 


Caffaggiolo 


{ffci/^jS 




Cf 




<^^ferU 


? ,, 


X 


Faenza 

c. 1500 


$ 


1500-20 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA CAFFAGGIOLO, SIENA 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






p 



p 



Caffaggiolo 



c. 1520 




1513 



1513-21 



in a panel on 

which is a 

cupid 



c. 1520 




/ Siena 
da >n benedetto 




I-P 



Caffaggiolo 



1550 




In Galiano, a 
hamlet near 
Caffaggiolo 



The Rape of 
Helen, made 

in Monte 

(a hamlet near 

Caffaggiolo) 



Siena 

Maestro 
Benedetto 
c. 1510-20 



c. 1510 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA SIENA, PESARO 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


fiDO 


Siena 


J / 


Pesaro 


Xl^ 1 * 




\/ 


c. 1510 


Ferdinando Maria 




' 




Campani Senese 
dipinse 1733. 




C H O X 




f 


? F. Campani. 


V 




PISA 


Pisa 

i6th century 


*f* 


1500-10 
(Pessaro or 
Faenza) 


RAFAELLO 


Montelupo 


J 


^ 


GIROLAMO FECIT 








MTE. LUPO 




^.^ 




1639 




iD 








rT 


? Pesaro 


#J*> 




M 


" 


Dipinta Giovinale 
Tereni da Montelupo 




(|) 


,, 


F. P. 
Asciani 


Asciano 
1600 


G 


,, 


F. F. D. 
FORTUNATUS 
PHILLIGELLUS 
P. ASCIANI 


1578 


in la lotega da mastro 
Girolamo da le Gabice 

In Pesaro 


IS42 
Made in the Lan- 
franchi workshop 
by Mo. Girolamo 
(or Gironimo) 


y 


Pesaro 

Early i6th cent. 

1520-30 


Fato in botega di 
Mastro Gironimo 
J'asaro 1. P. 

Terencio fecit in la 
bottega di Mastro 
Bahiessar Vasaro da 
Pesaro 


I. P. =Jacomo 
pinxit, 
Jacomo was son 
of Girolamo 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA PESARO, GUBBIO 



MARK. 


DESCKIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


1548 


Pesaxo 




Gubbio 


di Maestro T. 
I. S. 


Terencio 





Giorgio's mark is 
sometimes accom- 
panied by a head, a 
vase, a merchant's 


/^ /*' 




* 


mark, etc. 


CLtC^ 


Casali and 






J>?$c\.vtf 


Caligari, 






&. 


painted by 
Pietro Lei 


m 






? Francesco do' 






] !'. 


Fattori 
1 8th cent. 


I- 




<5 


1490-1500 
? Gubbio 


^ 






? Gubbio 


^ 


? Salimbene, 








brother of Giorgio 


tj| 




& 


" 


<f 




></>* 

^C^^j 


c. 1530 
N is supposed to 






** 


contain the letters 








YIN, and to be the 


r/^f^Fx* 


c. 1525 




monogram of 


^^^\ 






Yincencio, son of 


*i 




\y 


Giorgio 


A^ * -^^ 
i ^X fj^ 


Marks of 


/yC 




/I ' ^* 


Maestro 







l^ 


Giorgio Andreoli 






o 
* n A /on 

^f \^)^0 
& .1^ ffefetfrfr'vZO 

^ 


\\hose dated 
works range from 
1501-41 


M 


Other initials, r.jf. 
D, M. occur in 
Gubbio lustre 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA GUBBIO, CASTEL DURANTE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 








Castel Durante 


/C^W) 


Pesaro or 


kjl> 


c. 1520 


y^ ~j[ 


Gubbio 






Z? 


c. 1480 


t j2- C 




HM 


? G. A. for 


J)tc74?*^ 




jfi\4 


Giorgio 






CJi\ 


Andreoli 


SB' 




VCg|>i 


c. 1540 






*%* 


Probably for 
M Giorgio 


IN TERR(A) 
DVRANTIS 




In gUbio $. mano 
d majtro prejtino 


Prestino 
fl- 1536-57 


u 








x(/L^ 


1532 


/r 


Carocci, 


W 




tft^ 


Fabbri, 


C D 






& Co. 






053^ 


1 9th cent. 






yK 




P. Mastro Simono 


1562 


F>^r\ 




in Castelo Durale 








S. 


1580 




Castel 


G. S. 


c. 1530 




Durante. 










F. R. 




facia fu i Castel 


Giovanni 






durat 1 zond 


Maria, potter 


-TNXT 




niaria vro 


1508 










H. R. 


in scrolls 


Ne la botega 


1519 


Hipollito Rombaldoni 


Urbania 


d Sebastiano 




d Urbania pinse 1647 


= Castel 


d Marforio 






Durante 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA URBINO 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


A 


Urbino 




Urbino 


j . < . f. 

CL.CI vrbinQ 


monograms 
of Nicola 
Pellipario, 
also called 


^jjf 


Orazio 
Fontana 


WitoU*. cL&- 

V 


Nicola 
da Urbino, 
who came 
to Urbino 


fl* 


? Orazio 
Fontana 


JP 


in 1519 and 
worked in 
the botega 
of his son 


FATTO IN BOTEGA 
DE MORATOFONTAXA 




F 


Guido 
Fontana. 
He died 
about 1550 


TfO 


Flaminio 
Fontana 
1583 


<SD 




SFORZA. D. P. 


1567 


X^Si 


I5 *8 


fro. Xanto. A. daRavigo 
t Urbino pi 


Francesco 
Xanto 








Avelli 


fatte in Urbino in 
botega de j\f Guido 
fontana vasaro 

nella botega de M 
(iiiido durantino 


Fontana 
family 


** Xcito-A- 
X'l'Aino 


da Rovigo 
whose signed 
works range 
from 1530-42 


in Urbino. 1535 




O 


The words, 


L.V. 


on a dish 
attributed to 
Orazio Fontana 


&& 


historia, no fa, 
<yc fabula, and 
a description 
of the subjects 






J C 


occur on 


(OF) 


Monograms 
of Orazio 
Fontana 


K. X'A,' ^' "pilfor 


pieces painted 
by a pupil 
of Xanto 


Tr? 


fl. 1540-71 


historia 




^wU 




no/a 








frdcesco durantino 


Francesco 
Durantino 


\s 




T-& 


c. 1544 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA URBINO 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Urbino 




Urbino 


Francesco Duratino 


1553 


15 ^-9 




Vasaro A mote 


Probably at 


<>-* 


? Caesari 


Bagnolo <? Peroscia 


Bagnara, a village 
near Perugia 


\~ 

as 


Cari 1536-51 


In Urbino nella 


I 54 I 






botteg di Francesco 
de Si Litano 


= Silvano 


SAM 


? Simone di 
Antonio Mariani 


fato in Botega de 


I55 1 


GBF 


1630 uncertain 


Guido Merlino 








Gironimo Urbin 
fecie 1583 




/M?^#-rt^ 


1654 


gironimo el tomaso 


1575 






FGC 


in scrolls 


Pompio 

OF \ T 






c. 1580 


, r . > 








I 59 




<> 


by the same 






* 9 C 


artist 


G. L. P 


1667 


.Axf 


1542 uncertain 






^f *. 




Urbini Pat ana fecit 


1584 The 








Patanazzi family 


GOB 


IS3 1 










ALFONSO 


1606 








PATANAZZI 
FECIT URBIN 








f\ J 


in a shield 


L 


" 










URBINI EX FIGLINA 


1608 


I \ 


with initials 


FRANCISCI PATANATII 




LJ 


and date EFB 






^Hr 


1594 










vincentio fatanatai 


by Vincenzio 


\\^^ 




de anni 12 


at the age of 








12 in 1619 


"iT 7 


c. 1540 






^ -^ 




E. B. 


School of the 


^^i 




^ c 


Patanazzi 


fefy 




W 





ITALIAN MAIOLIGA URBINO, DIRUTA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


I'\ibrica di Majolica 


Urbino 




Diruta 


/ina di Monsiur Rolet 
in 1 'rhino . . . 1773 




VJj 

V 




Citt a Borgo S. Sepolcro 
Mart. Rolet us fecit 


at Borgo San 
Sepolcro. 

1771 


& 

<B 


i 


- 




San Quirico 


jfl 


W 




Bar Terchi Romano 
in S. Quirico 


Bartolomeo 
Terchi 


XT' 




,?^ 


worked 
also at 
Bassano 
(!*.) 


P 


with the words 

IN DERVTA 

"544 


"** 




^ut (^ 


El Frate 


C'2-> 




elA^.^n,/^ 


pinse 
( = painted it) 


Bar: Terc 




A]^^ 




Romano 




*tf 






Diruta 


&. D 




I.DERVTA 


1505 






G. 




Tnc(eru(w 




AI 


1480 


y 


i 

i 
Tf 


1545 


CB 




( 


1 




1 


? Diruta 


fl 


V 




CDL 




G. \". 


Probably 
Giorgio Vasaio 


fran''". I'rbini 
i dcruta 


1537 


. \ntonio I.afreri 
In Deruta 


'554 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA DIRUTA, VITERBO 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Diruta 






1771 

FABRICA DI 
MAIOLICA FINA 
DI 
GREGORIO CAS 
ELLI IN DI 
RUTA 




IO SILVESTRO 
D'AGELO TRINCI 
DA DERVTA 

FATT IN 
BAGNIOREA 
1691 


? in village 
of Bagnara 
(see p. 10) 


If 




fabriano 


Fabriano 







V 




B 


with lustred 
scrolls 


(^ B- 




F* 


c. 1560 
? Diruta 


^JK *V 




C- 




IFR 


Viterbo 




" 


V1TERBIEN 

IN VITERBO 
1544 


on a ribbon 


T 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA ROME, FAENZA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Borne 




Faenza 


1579 fato in 








botega da Antonio 




^ 




da Casteldurate 
in Roma 




X 


i 5th century 
marks 


FATTO IN BOTEGA 




* 




DE M. DIOMEDE 


1600 






DURANTE IN ROMA 




PP 




FATTO IN ROMA DA 




' 


Faenza or 


GlO PAULO SAVlNO 




M 


Florence 1460 






/ / 


Faenza or 


ALMA ROMA 




*r*l 


Caffaggiolo 


1623 




Fk 


1490 






t\ & 


On pavement 


W^XjT 






tiles in the 


lUiS J- 






Church of San 


ROMA 






Sebastiano, 


KAg-^, 






Venice, 1510. 


x 




*TT^ 


Faenza 




on porcelain 


jS^Tt"^ 


1510-20 




biscuit and 


S?Cy J*^J 




G-VOLPATO-ROMA 


white pottery 








figures 


'JL* 






1790-1831 


JL. 


? Betini family 




Faenza 


* *D 




PETRUS 
ANDREA 
DE FA 
BOLOGNI 
BETINI FEC 
1487 


Signatures 
on pavement 
tiles at 
Bologna 
in the 
San 


|O * i 

^^^^^^ 

l 


others assign 
these marks to 
Castel Durante 




Petronio 







ITALIAN MAIOLICA FAENZA 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. MARK. DESCRIPTION 



o 




IIMCAXAPmoTA 







Faenza 



c. 1520 



The Casa 
Pirota 
factory 



1530 



c. 1530 



1525 



c. 1520 



1527 











r\ 



Faenza 



Casa Pirota 



1525 



I53 1 



this mark also 

occurs with the 

letter S 



c. 1540 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA FAENZA 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DK.sCKII'TION. 



>1'FF 





Faenza 



c. 1530 



c- 1525 
(? Casa Pirota) 

1533 

? Mark of 

M. Vergilio 

1560 




155 



with the word 

FAENZA 



? Faenza 




F-R 

Gtntiu<-rctyn,er<.u 5 J^F 



Baldasara 

Manara 

Faventinus 

(orfecit) 

c. 1530 



Faenza 

Baldasara 
Manara. 1534 



? Faenza 
c. 1500 



Perhaps the 

mark of the 

Atanasio 

factory in 

Faenza 



1508 

1520-30 

F.nnius Ray- 

nerius Faentinu: 

faciebat 1575 



also inscribed 

Giovano Bra ma 

di Park-niia 

1546 in faenza 



i6 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA FAENZA, VENICE 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



fato in faienze in 
Botega di M fran. 



lo Ant Romanino 
Cimatti de Favesc 



Zacharia Valaressi 
1651 in Faenza 



F B F 



R B 

F 





1556 

Cimatti or 
Cimani 



Francesco 

Ballanti 

1 8th cent. 

Benini 

fabrique 

1777-8 

Forli 



1485-90 



1523 



/ la botega 

da M lero 

da Forli 




RAVENA 



Thomas Masselli 
Ferrarien fee 



in Rimino 1535 



J 



17 AM mm; 



f 



Julio da Urbino in 

botega de mastro 

alisandro in 

arimino 



In Venetia in Cotrada 

di S ta Polo in botega 

di M Ludovico 




ITALIAN MAIOLICA VENICE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Venice 




Venice 




? Mark of 
M Ludovico 


%* 


Marks of the 
Bertolini 




c. 1540 


*TY 


factory 






AgJLjl 


c- 1753 


lo Stefano Barcella 




<** 




Veneziano Pinx 




N^jr 




M Jacomo da 


In S to Barnaba 


-*(( &u/ 




Pesaro 


in Venice 


J% 




Guido Merlingo 


In San Polo 


*^\ 




Vasaro da Urbino 


in Venice 


mmJ 






1542 


IKjf 




/\oi.AS^ NR/ 


1543 


t 




M" Francesco da 
Castel Durante 


In S a Thoma 
in Venice 


S CrJB 


c. 1750 




1545 






^r/<7i^ 




J3 tS 1 


Probably 


CLL * * vj 




^* 


Venetian 






*/9Q 


Marks 


in venezia in chastello 


1546 


)s^ 


1 8th cent. 


G 


1571-1622 


"S 




Zener domenigo da 
Venecia 


1568 


p> 




Baldantonio in Venecia 


iSSi 


^GN 




Bariselio 


1587 


F.S.M 




JaC'imo } 'asellaro 


1593 


vc 




K. da Madre 


1596 


CL 




Suor Zttana 




?!t 




D. M. SEIMO 




i</^ 




G.L.P. 1667 









1 8 ITALIAN MAIOLICA VERONA, MILAN, TURIN 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Verona 




Turin 


Giovani Batista 
dafaenza 




1737 
Fabbrica de Torino 




in Verona 


1 53 






M 




X^V 








(3 


Rosetti factory 




Milan 


vytx 




f 








Pit, 


Pasquale 
Rubati 
1762 


2> 


1629 


$ 




fo^ 


Uncertain 


y 






Turin marks 


CCtL&thJ 


Felice 






<; * C 


Clerici 


T. 




JKU.* 




T.G. 




~ 




Borgano 


c. 1823 


sK> 




Rredi I mod a 






Pavia 






Gr.A Or 




I.uigi Richard e C. 




ly o 




GRATA PAGLIA 




MAM 




FE : TAVR : 







c. 1710 
Turin 


DG 


Vinovo 

Mark of Vittorio 
Amadeo Gioanetti 
c. 1776 


*/ 


Arms of 




Mondovi 


m 


Savoy under 




Benedetto Musso 


\P 


a crown 


M. M. 


igth cent. 






BG 


Giuseppe Besio 


nvtfatH Torino 


1577 










M A 


Annibale Musso 





ITALIAN MAIOLICA TREVISO, LODI 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Treviso 




Nove 


D.O.N. P.A.K.I.S.T.O.E.D. 




/"*"^*^^^\ 




A.T.K. A.V.I. S.I.O. 


1538 





G. Baron i 


S. M. 1595 


Bassano 

? Simone Marioni 


A'OVB 


Early igth cent. 


4C*F*fi- t$Q? 




5.J.6 


1750 


WfisyrAflio 




JT if .-/\ ft * 


A star of six 






FJQUE 


points alone is 


A '**)'? 


Antonio 


M W ^fm H'Jt 
s*' tu f" 


a Nove mark 


/\irQi\ia fffcc/ 


Terchi 


*w> "^uarcowc. fMm y\ 




fn 








*? 






Padua 


^*//<xn 




NIC.O 






Bartolomeo 






j37?rcli 


Terchi 








(See p. u) 


W-ff. 


1563 


as&no 


mark used by 


'*'** 




^ -* 


Terchi 


_ ' . 




A. 




iy<tLo<4, 




tf. 


mark used by 
Manardi, 
late 1 7th cent. 


+ X 


c - X 555 
Candiana 






Candiana 


On imitations 






1620 


of Turkish 




Manardi 




faience 




at Bassano 


S.E.C. 








A/f 


Lodi 


An^arcm /^^ 


incised 


_y\ 






Nove 


t OcT i 1 Y^TA 
i ** 1 '/Olf 




I^Q . r\5J6\? 


Giovanni 






GBA'B: 


Battista 
Antonibon 


Fabbrica di Rosetti 
in l.odi 





(25fe 


Early i8th cent. 


/"cli.v Crevaiii 




V4W 




fecit 1767 





ITALIAN MAIOLICA SAVONA 



Mark of 
Siccardi 
c. 1700 

also a star of 
five points 



Mark of 
Bartolomeo 
Guidobono 



Mark of 

Pescetto, 

also three 

fishes. 




ITALIAN MAIOLICA SAVONA, NAPLES, CASTELLI 21 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



M. Borelli 
A. S. 



Jacques Bortlli 



A 



Bfi 



F DV 
N 



M-C- 

C. A. G. pi. 



D. Francisci Antonii 
Xarerii Grue 



L. G. P. 



Savona 
Borelli factory 

1779 



Albissola 



Naples 

Marks of 

F. Brandi 

1654 



1784 



Del Vecchio 

Naples 
ipth cent. 



Castelli 

Carl Antonio Grue 
1 7th cent. 

1735 



Liborio Grue 
(t 1776) 

Saverio Grue 
(t 1799) 

One of the 
Grue family 




Bernardino Gentile 
C. G. P. 
Gentile p. 

G. Rocco di Castelli 
Capelleti 
Fuina 

Luc. Ant Ciaiiico 
Math. Rossetti 




'I 



Castelli 



= Bernardino 
Gentile fece 



1670 

Carmine 
Gentile pinxit 



1732 



Naples 

1760 to present 
day 



Mark of 

Cantigalli 

of Florence 

Modern 



22 ITALIAN MAIOLICA AND PORCELAIN FLORENCE 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRII'TION. 




/jfAO 

TIE, 




GEO r&ATA . 




fabric* di 



Uncertain 
marks 

? Diruta 

or Viterbo 

1600-20 



? Urbino 



Name of an 

artist of Citta 

S. Sepolcro, 

whose design 

was copied on 

a plate 

? Monograms 
of the same 



? Castelli 




Marks on 

porcelain made 

at Florence 

under the 
patronage of 
Grand Duke 

Francesco 
Maria, who 

died 1587 

The first repre- 
sents the 
cupola of the 
Cathedral of 
Florence : 



the second 
the arms of 
the Medici 



On a plate 
which has also 
the first mark 

All are painted 

in blue under 

the glaze 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN VENICE, DOCCIA 



2 3 



MARK. 


DKSCKIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


^, 

A 

VE W : 


Venice 

Marks of the 
Vezzi factory 
1719-40 
h. p. and s.p. 
p. in blue 


J* 

1 ^ (ji j, 


Venice 

Cozzi factory 
p. in red 


s~i 




-Q 


also with 


> i 




A J A 


initials 


P. * 






G. M. 


^1 ?^ 




AEW 




vTsi/f 


p. in blue 


IW 




f^ 




Fortunate 
Tolerazsi Fece 
re/testa 1763 


at the Hewelche 
factory 
(1758-63) 
inc. 


Lndovico Ortolani 
] 'c'fte/o dipinte nella 
I'abrica di Porcelana 
in } 'e/tetia 


p. -in lake 


/"** J 

2^> A^ 


? Venice or 
Le Nove 


1 '</!" .\. G. 1726 


p. in red 




Doccia 






(f 4 /\ 


Factory founded 


c? 




N.S. 


by the Marchese 
Carlo Ginori 
in 1735 and con- 
tinued to the 


<t- |" ' M f : IO 






present day 








K.S. = Niccolo 








Scbastiano 


lacubiis Helchis 
fecit 

I'enezia 

J'al>" Gentiniano 
Cossi 


1758-63 
h.p. 

The Cozzi 
factory 
1764-1812 
p. in red 

s.p. 


P-F 
<;INORI 


p. in blue 

In a circle 
initials of 
Fanciullacci 

s.p. at first 
h. p. afterwards 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN LE NOVE, CAPO DI MONTE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Le Nove 




Capo di Monte 


W \J 


1762-1825 


-. 


(Naples) 


X X 


The star mark 


%B9P 


The factory was 


* 


sometimes 
ascribed to 
Doccia 

p. in red and blue 


N 


removed to 
Naples about 
1771. These 
marks are 
after that date. 




s.p. 


^^& 


s.p. till c. 1780. 


* 




H 


Marks p. in blue 
and inc. 


/?v 


Cf. marks on 


*? 




rf 


Le Nove pottery 






cs^s^ 


on p. 








p. in gold 


+^ 




"** 




Gafr 


Cypher of King 






^f3c^ 


Ferdinand 


FE 


Treviso 

s.p. 


G' 


p. in red 


iT""?"' y 


Fratelli 


J O^CidLltO 


Incised on figures : 


I i '//% t "ift ft 


Fontebasso 


/\ / I, 


names of 


cjtS u */ y / /yy 


. 


Xi/LCCct O 


modellers 


.C/ r 


p. in gold 






TB 


s.p. 

also with initials 
G.A.F.F. 


TIC 


and other forms of 
the fleur-de-lys : 








supposed to be 


-l- 


Vinovo 

1776-1815 




early Capo di 
Monte marks, but 
probably Madrid 


^^ 


' ' hybrid 




(see p. 91) 


\77<T 


porcelain " 




p. in blue 




p. in grey 


^?S *$ 




* 




f/UT 


Giustiniani 


"T 


p. in black 




factory (seep. 21) 


"^ /MflA 


p. in grey and 


*^ 




^/ ** " ^^ 


inc. 


^p 










? Vicenza 


V 


Dr. Gioanetti 


\v 




PG 


(see p. 18) 






C~f ^- 


p. in gold 


m^* 


? Este 
s.p. 



ITALY AND GERMANY ADDITIONAL 



24-V 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Italian maiolica 




German faience 






Q^ 


Georg Leubold 
(Hamburg) 


ffrirlrn 'ccL -MiMfnit 


Magrini & Co. 
1870 


we 


Nuremberg 

a painter's initials 
c. 1680 






B 4-3 


1 8th cent. 


Tp* 


Fabbrica di 


^ 







Santa Cristina 


/I 




&* 6 


Milan 
c. 1780 


y 


Early i8th cent. 


Xv 









P- fVcu- 


Naples 


A 




iJ(.Y\ jWi* 


F. A. Grue 






JlQQLji" 


(See p. 21 ) 


0:J^H^ 


John Andreas at 
the Marx factory 
p. 29 


d*t Z/Wc/i/o 


1 9th cent. 


J^uix* :^y 

-c 

Frdn.^ 


Kiinersberg 
p. 29 


jO\s 


? Giustiniani 
on modern 


SCHRAMBERG 

Belvedere Manufactur 
in Warschau 


Schramberg 


Warsaw 
c. 1790 


A|A 


maiolica 










J52L~ 


Bayreuth 






Jamf 


P- 3 


I.G-T.F ^ 

G'.Gr.i'PF /63^ 


on porcelain 
probably made 
at Pisa 

p. in blue 


ef* 


Frankel & Schreck 




"t 4 ^ 




\mf 


?Von Loewenfeldt 






3 


Decorator's 






,6**. 


monogram 



GERMANY, HOLLAND, ETC. ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 



IH 



CN 






M 20 

GUISHARD 
SHU1CHAKD 




\H 



DESCRIPTION. 



HOchst 
faience (p. 30) 



painter's initials 

Hamburg 

Early i8th cent. 



Schleswig 



Oldesloe 



Magdeburg 

Early igth cent. 



Prussia 



Konigsberg 
c. 1800 



? Von Horn 



Hofrat Errenreich 



porcelain 
decorator 



MARK. 



O 



CK. 



7 



/*" 




D. Tenniers invent. 

I. Aalmis pinx. 

a Rotterdam 1777 



Doctor Gr auers 
fayance fabrique 




DESCRIPTION. 



(See p. 35) 



Proskau 
(Silesia) 



D. P. after 1786 



Salzburg 



Delft 

1 7th cent. 



G. L. Krnyk 

1645 



Rotterdam 

on tiles 



Copenhagen 

faience 



c. 1760 



GERMAN POTTERY 

A NUMBER of potters in Germany and Switzerland from the 
sixteenth century onwards were engaged in the manufacture of 
elaborate stove-tiles, usually ornamented with reliefs in sunk 
panels and coloured with slips, glazes, and tin enamel ; brown, 
yellow, green, blue, maganese purple, and white were the principal 
colours used. The manufacture of tin-glazed faience after the 
Italian and Dutch styles was common in most parts of Germany 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; and a certain amount 
of slip-decorated and graffiato earthenware was made in South 
Germany, at Gennep in Luxembourg, and at Schaffhausen in 
Switzerland, in the eighteenth century. 

In the Rhenish provinces a large stoneware industry developed 
in the sixteenth century at Siegburg, Raeren, Cologne, Frechen, 
and elsewhere, and during the two following centuries at Grenz- 
hausen in Nassau. The typical Rhenish stoneware varies from 
white to freckled brown, and is ornamented with panels in low 
relief made in moulds and applied, as well as with stamped and 
incised decoration : the ware was glazed with salt, and sometimes 
coloured with patches of cobalt blue and maganese purple. The 
cutting of moulds for the reliefs was an important branch of this 
industry, and most of the marks arc those of the mould-cutters, 
and appear in relief in the panels. Bottles with a bearded mark 
on the neck, known as Bellarmines or Greybeards, are the 
commonest specimens of Rhenish stoneware. The tall, tapering 
tankards of white Siegburg ware are among the best examples of 
this class. Another variety, made chiefly at Kreussen, is heavily 
painted in enamel colours. 



26 GERMAN PORCELAIN 



GERMAN PORCELAIN 

THE secret of true or hard-paste porcelain, after the manner of 
the Chinese, was discovered about 1707 at Dresden by J. F. 
Bottger, an alchemist, in the employ of Augustus II. of Poland, 
Elector of Saxony. He discovered about the same time the 
method of making a fine red stoneware, now known as Bottger 
ware, but called by him red porcelain. This ware was finished 
by polishing on the lathe, or covering with a black glaze and 
enriching with gold and silver ornament or engraving. Bottger 
and his secrets were transferred in 1710 to Meissen, where he 
started the celebrated Meissen porcelain factory under strict 
surveillance. The process, however, could not be kept hidden, 
and escaped workmen carried the secret first to Vienna and 
afterwards to all parts of Germany. Factories sprung up in one 
principality after another under the protection of the ruling houses, 
who vied with each other during the eighteenth century in the 
production of true porcelain. All the German porcelain is hard 
paste, varying in fineness according to the sources of the porcelain 
clay. The finest material was obtained from Aue in Saxony, and 
a coarser earth mined near Passau produced the greyer and 
inferior wares made in the Thuringian factories at the end of the 
eighteenth century. Each factory had its distinctive mark 
usually painted in blue under the glaze, though among the minor 
factories, particularly those of the Thuringian district, there was a 
tendency to use marks suspiciously similar to the Meissen crossed 
swords. The latter mark is sometimes found with one or two 
cuts across it : this signifies that the ware was faulty and rejected 
by the Meissen factory as unfit for decoration, and any ornament 
on pieces so marked must have been added elsewhere. 



GERMAN POTTERY AND STONEWARE SIEGBURG 27 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


R.A. 1589 


Marks on 
stove tiles 


L 


1589 


ADAM VOGT 
1626 


Augsburg 


P V 1605 


Peter Vlack 








Raeren 


HANS KRAUT 


Villingen 
IS78 


B M 1577 


3aldem Menneken 


HC 





I M 1578 


Jan Menneken 


C W lf0t* 




I E 1576 


Jan Emens 


BID 


1550 


E P E K 1584 






Siegburg 


E E 1586 






Marks of the 
potters and 
mould carvers 


G E 1590 


Georg Emens 


B K 1557 
M P D 1551 


Bertram Kniitgen 





Jan Emens 

1587 
and ' ' merchant's 
mark " 


L W 1573 




VV 




I M 


1573 


D P 1591 
R 


D. Pitz 
Raeren 


C F 





ENGEL KRAN 


1584 


I VS 





H H 1595 


Hans Higler 


/5S8 




H K 1600 




\Ty 


Monograms of 
this kind are 


I K 




Jv e?J vl 


known as 






n^S r 


' ' merchant's 
marks ' ' 


I M 1601 




-\^j~ 




I T 1623 






Christian and 


H B 


Baldems 


C K, P K 


Peter 
Kniitgen 


I B 


family 
1 7th cent. 



28 GERMAN STONEWARE RAEREN, GRENZHAUSEN 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Raeren 




Hohr-Grenz- 


I A 


Jean Allers 


M 1597 


hausen 
in Nassau 


M H 


Melsior 
Honckebour 


W FS 




G B 




LW 




W.E. W.A. D.P. 




K B L Hohr 


1 8th cent. 






Johannes Mennechen 




*2_f\. 




Hohr 1790 




~TT 


? Willem 






/ 


Emens 






-z-Lf 




x5>\ 


Grenzhausen 


CL 




rs/v/ 


modern 


Y 


? Willens 


V^xj^/ 




\wy 






Bouffioux 


XScT 




M P 


? Pierre Morfroy 






T R 


Jean Rifflet 


L W 












JB 


Jean Bertrand 


A. Ernst 


? Raeren 










JA 


Jean Allers 


J. Ernst 












L. 


Cologne 






rT 


1 7th cent. 


/4^<EX|i\ 






Kremer 


v^Q^~~*^o~^y 


" 


\1N> 


i8th cent. 


^^^ 




O jO. 

*J* Sr 


pottery 


^ 






Kreussen 


Sg8J?\ 




I V 


Vogel 


/VJpVBf 


?., 


H M 




\<j^ir 




G L M E L 


1628 


^^r 




M M C 




AC 











On Saxon 


M J W C 






wares 






A M 




GEORGIUS VEST 


1603 



GERMAN STONEWARE AND FAIENCE KREUSSEN 29 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Kreussen 




Nuremberg 


CASPAR VEST 


Stoneware 


G. V. GREENER 


1720 


<Jk> 




G liter 1723 




HAXS CHRISTOPH VEST 


1600 


Johann Sebalt Frans 




ADAM SCHARF 


1644 


T 




MATTH/EUS 


On ware made 






SCHRONVOGEI, 


at Passau 


Stebner 


1771 


ZU BASSAU 


1638, in the 








Kreussen style 


IOH : SCHAPER 


1665 a decorator 




Nuremberg 
maiolica 


/m^ 
fl 


J. Schaper 





1583 


M. Schmid 1722 


a follower of 








Schaper 


HERR CHRISTOPH 


1712 






MARX 






y- QQ 






J L< F 


lOOO 


JOHANN CONRADT 


,, 






ROMEDI 




A_T 




|*V. .. , . 


In the Marx 


-4ri. 


" 


OlKODC/; 


factory 1730 






B 




\J$ ^-*U 


? Memmingen 
in Ssvabia. 


N. Possinger 


1725 


M/ 


c. 1560 


3XK. 


? Kordenbusch 


Kiinersberg 




G. Kordenbusch 




3 ^* \l/ 


? Kunersberg 
in Wiirtemberg 


J. G. K. 




** L. . 


1744 


B. K. 








K. 




B 


Schretzheim 






^==. 


near Kllwangen 


G. K. 




w 


founded by 








Wintergurst 


A0 AB A6 




f O' 


early r8th cent. 


K: F 4- 




^ 





30 GERMAN FAIENCE ANSBACH, BAYREUTH, GENNEP 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Ansbach 




Gennep 


Matthias Rosa in 
Anspath 


late 1 7th cent, 
style of Rouen 


ANTONIO CARDINAL 
GERRIT LONNE 


(in Luxembourg) 
i8th cent. 




and 1 8th cent. 


PETER MENTEN 


Graffiato ware and 


A 


? Arnstadt 
or Ansbach 




slip ware 


-" - "^" 




*/ /;> 


names and initials 


Pinxit F. G. Fliegel 


Arnstadt 


j HA 


of potters 


Arnstadt 1775 












Pietet Heichens fecit 




\ / 


M 


in Berlot 1777 




A/\& 


1 8th cent. 




Hochst 






CjO 


1 8th cent. 


., 


Goggingen 


/Sl/\ 


(see also p. 35) 








faience 


QOuutn.acr\ 


near Augsburg 


^CL--^ 




^ ^ 


1748 , style 






HS 


of Savona 














^ 


Bayreuth 






J3cii$reuTf?c 


1728-35 


. 




f 




//^. 


Marks of 


Jx "y* 




f 


Zeschinger, 


I(P e/t W* 







who sometimes 








signs his full name 


$ H 


Knoller (1720-40) 


v' ^T-* 




BK ' 




V' ~7" 




c 




^ 




P p "pp 


Pfeiffer 


e 




r? f ~y sT 


c. 1750 












? Hochst or 


& 


? Nuremberg 




Dirmstein 


9' 


I7th cent. 


j 


Damm 






. 


near Aschaffen- 


ANTONIUS BERNARDUS 


Gennep 


pj 


berg, c. 1825 


VON VEHLEN 


1770 







J/V.W/0- 


? Gennep 
1715 


en 


Florsheim 
C. Machenhauer 
1781 



GERMAN FAIENCE FRANKENTHAL, HANAU, KIEL 31 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


H He 


Frankenthal 

Hannong 
1 8th cent. 





Hamburg 
c. 1680 


R tf &*(**- 












Johann Otto Lessel 








sculpsit et Pinxit 




M 


Mainz 


Hamburg 1756 






1 8th cent 


Kiel 


Kiel 


"X- 








j 

r 




Buch-wald Director 
Abr : Leihamer fecit 


1769 


W.R- 


Marburg 


ij?" 







Poppelsdorf 


yc. 






1 8th cent. 


t$.Oi*F. 




^Ljl^^ 




/\ X 








ic JC. 








H Z 






Bonn 


t. * 








-C, JC 






Hanau 


*f^ <cf / ^ 




H J-B 


(1661-1805) 
H. Bally (1680-90 


^ ^.r. 








C C 


Schleswig 


VA 


Van Alphen 


TR H 


(1775-1819) 


Al 




<2 JL 








^JJ, Tj? 




^ 






Ranibusch 





? Hanau 


J?L B^ 


1753-1801 



32 GERMAN FAIENCE ECKERNFORDE, STRALSUND 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Q_ O 




HI 

vr 




W-E 



Eckernforde 

1767 

OEB = Otto, 

Eckernforde, 

Buchwald 



Stockelsdorff 

Buchwald 

1773 



? Hadensee 



Stralsund 



Stralsund 

N.E. Prussia 
1768 



(this mark 

also assigned 

to Marieberg, 

Sweden) 




JL 

P 



Lesum 
Vielstich 
(1755-94) 



Minden 
1 8th cent. 



Kellinglmsen 
1 8th cent. 



1796 

Fulda 

(1740-58) 



Rheinsburg 

Liidecker, 

Rheinsburg. 

c. 1771 

Potsdam 

1770 

Frankfort 

(on the Oder) 
1770 



GERMAN PORCELAIN MEISSEN 



33 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 

r 


DESCRIPTION. 




Meissen 




Meissen 


A 


Marks incised on 
Bottger's 
wares 




" Caduceus" 
mark, properly 
the rod of 




1707-1719 


^ ^ 


^Esculapius. 






t. -j 


p. in blue 




|X 




< 


and purple 

I727-7C 


E?) 




' 


/ / i> J 

Cypher of 


1X7 




^i 


Augustus II. of 


V S- 




C^fc 


Poland, Elector 






CP\ 


of Saxony. 






T| \ 


p. in blue 






\S \S^VJ 


arid purple 








1725-40 


a. 




J^XL 


" Kosel " mark : 






.^^ 


said to have been 






f* 


only placed on 








wares made for 








the Countess of 






* 


Kosel, mistress 


J -*" 


Imitation 




of Augustus II. 




Chinese and 






r* 


Japanese 
marks on 
"Meissen 
porcelain 


M/ 


An early mark in 
gold 




early i8th cent, 
p. in blue 


George Ernst Keil. 


In an ornamental 


/ C v^c 




Meissen IHV. 6 /// 


escutcheon 


J3* ^^7 




1724 




Uf * 

4f 0V 




A 


The cross swords 
from the Arms of 
Saxony used 


E i 


/ 




V / 


from 1725 


f 




\ / 


onwards. 






y 


p. in blue, 








vx 


rarely in gold, 


C?3 




Ac- 


purple or red 


^c 


(Incised mark 






T /*\ /-v 


on porcelain 




Inc. 


-C vO. 


in the royal 






Ml 


collection 






T 


at Dresden) 







34 



GERMAN PORCELAIN MEISSEN 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Meissen 




Meissen 


X 

o 


K. H. C. W. = 
Konigliche 
Hof Conditorei, 
Warsaw 
(Royal Court 
Confectionery), 
p. in purple 


X" 




/VV/ \*\S 






The dot used 


v *f*7yp 


Konigliche 
Porzellan 


' 


mostly from 
1756-80 




Manufactur. 
p. in purple 
1723-30 


\ 


The star used 
during the 
directorship of 
Count Camillo 


^/ \^ 
jr* ^*> 




1 \ 


Marcolini and a 


86. 




A 


few years after 
1780-1816 


X^ 




/x\ 






ft P. J f 




/. /. Kaendler 


Sculptor and 
modeller 


5rsc&it 






I73I-5 6 , 


W 


Impressed : 
very rare 


-9- *r 

T ^L^ 
^u c/T ^o- 


Workmen's signs 
impressed or 
painted, painters' 
and gilders' 
marks 


iKeucNi 


f 




^ 


A pheasant, 
in gold 


X 




% 


Loehnig pinxit. 
p. in purple 


C. /'. 7/*/rf 




SC^^ 




v/ . et fecit a meisse 
175 




Louche fecit 

Dresden 


painter's name 



GERMAN PORCELAIN MEISSEN, ANSBACH, HOCHST 35 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Meissen 




Ansbach 


K 


Kretzschmar 








or Kohnberger 


\J 


p. in blue 


E 


Eggebrecht 


.A 




L 


Lindner 






Mo 


Mobius 


A 




B 


Berger 


3r 




H 


Hammer or 








Hempel 


ft 




IAW 


Marks of 
decorators not 


A 




Q <*> /i/'*' 


attached to the 


i^^.? 


Arms of . 


<tr+s+*>-*Lf *****[ 
' 


factory 


O' 


Ansbach 




Busch, canon 
of Hildesheim, 


J/t/wcA 


Bayreuth 


*** '^ 


who etched his 
designs with a 


1748 

Bayr. 


p. in grey 


w 


diamond point 
I. A. Botten- 


Bayreuth, Fee. Jncht 


Jucht, a painter, 
p. in blue 


&CL /* 


gruber of 






c/1^ 17 26 


Breslau 


X" V 




^ 


(Wrattislau) 


/5V* 




/**"""" ailBI *^^ 




^^ 


? Bayreuth 








'p. in grey 


CL^ 




IS 




*^IH 






Hochst 




Ansbach 


$ 


1746-96 


jA 


c. 1760 


\y 


p. in blue or 


"^H^T' 


The eagle of 


XTS 


colours, or 


jJPfc 


Brandenberg, 


/N^n 


impressed. 


o^^^Pv 


to which family 


*^^br 




A 


the Margraves 
of Ansbach 
belonged 


}** 


Marks of 






V ^*~ 


Zeschinger 


A 




Y*. 


(see also p. 30) 


^1 




If 





36 GERMAN PORCELAIN HOCHST, FURSTENBERG 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





Hocbst 
p. in blue 



Joseph Schneider 
imp. 



Mark of a figure 

repairer (not 

Melchior) 

Damin 

(see p. 30) 

where the Hochst 

moulds were 

used from about 

1840 

Fiirstenberg 

1750-0. 1850 



p. in blue 



Horse of 
Brunswick imp. 

Frankenthal 

1755-c. 1800 

Lion of the 

Palatinate and 

monogram of 

J. A. Hannong 

p. in blue 

Paul Hannong 






CH 



Frankenthal 

Cypher of Carl 

Theodor, Elector 

Palatine. 

p. in blue 

? Frankenthal. 
p. in lilac 



? Von Recum 
c. 1800 



Mark used 

at Pfalz- 

Zweibriicken 

1769-75 (and 

at Gutenbrunn 

1767-69) 



Nymphenburg 

1754 to present 
day 

Arms of Bavaria 
imp. 



in blue 



imp. 



= Churfiirstliche 

Hof Zehrgadln 

(Electoral Court 

Store-room ) 

p. in brown 



GERMAN PORCELAIN NYMPHENBURG, BERLIN 37 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Nymphenburg 




Berlin 


C. H. Conditorey 

17 
1771 


= Churfurstliche 
Hof Conditorei 
(Electoral Court 


V)^ <fe 


.(175010 
present day) 
Initial of Wegeli 




Confectionery). 


33U 


( I 75-57) 




p. in brown 






C . H. Silberkamer 


, , plate- 


< 


Gotzkowski 
(1761-63). 
p. in blue 




chamber 












Sceptre of Elector 


W 


Arms of Bavaria, 
p. in blue 


II* 


of Brandenburg 
1763-1837: 
with dots Jan. 1837. 


w^ 




^ 


p. in blue 






3 


P. with sceptre 


f&IQ^ 




l Ik 


and eagle from 


4n5Jjn 


imp. 


''.W^W 


1832 


^Wf 




KPM 


Konigliche Por- 
zellan Manufactur 


Amberg. 1774 


Name of an artist. 








p. in lilac 
Ludwigsburg 


1 


1834-1844 




1758-1824 


KPM- 




fS^M 


Arms of 






fcfij 


Wiirtemberg, 
3 stags' horns. 


41 


In red and brown 


^\/ 


p. in blue 


vSK 


(1823-32) 






* 


in blue 


jO 


L. 


KPM 


(1844-1847) 






X^LELDX 


1847-49. 


*** 


Stag's horn from 
the arms of 
Wiirtemberg. 




And with sceptre 
(1849-80) 
The eagle also 
used by Schuman 


X 




^^^^ 


of Moabit with his 
name from 1832 




Cypher of 






X 


Charles, Duke 
of Wiirtemberg. 
p. in blue 


I 


From 1870 

From 1882. 
Seger Porzellan 


.A. 


F R, cypher of 






a 


Frederick I. King 
of Wiirtemberg 
(1805-16). 
p. in red. 


- 


Painter's mark 
in blue 1803-10, 
in red 1821-23 



GERMAN PORCELAIN THURINGIA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Kelsterbach 




Closter 


f*T^if 


c. 1760-72 




T7 "1 A f 


^T2 


H D = Hess 


cs^i 


veiisaori 


H> 


Darmstadt, 
p. in blue 


C FlpV'- 


I7&5-C. 1825 
Arms of Saxony, 
p. in blue 




Limbach 


inr 




\/ 


(Thuringia) 






^^\^ 




1762 onwards. 


I/ ^/ 






Crossed Ls used 


Y/ 




JC 


at Limbach and 
Grosbreitenbach 
till 1788. 


4\7 


c. 1787 




p. in blue 


yHk/ 


c. 17.83 


LB 


Limbach 


* X 


Also the cross 
swords of 
Meissen 


<fc * 


Trefoil (seal of 
G. Greiner) used 
at Limbach and 


R 


Gotha 

(1767 onwards) 
1767-1790. 


^^^ 


Grosbreitenbach 


/ft 


p. in blue 


^^5kj 


from 1788 


**" ^Lx 


c. 1805. 


&SKJ&&F 


onwards and 


/t 


MarkofRotteberg 


^P^ 


at Ilmenau 




the director 




Factory of 


(0ti) 




. tffctvb* 1 ^" & 


Grosbreitenbach, 




St. in red 


'6 <V ... ^4? 


dates from 1779 


>gR\ 


(? rebus for 


G-ru-6*r *<$ 


to present day. 


r5OA 


Henneberg) 




inc. 


I vjjy 




Vfc' 


Wallendorf 


^3jl/ 




u : naoa 


c. 1778 
p. in blue 


Cc @ 


? Gotha or Gera 







r 




X 


" 


J\& 


Ilmenau 

177711788. 


s\\S 


,, 


\/\S 


p. in blue 


l/v^ 


Volkstedt 


_T 1 


1787 


yv* 


1762-87 used 
hayfork (from 
arms of 


\ 


c. 1800 




Ruddstadt), 








and cross swords 


^ 


1788-92 


\/* 


Mark of Nonne 






\T " 


at Volkstedt 


, 


Nonne and 




1787 onwards. 
p. in blue 




Roesch 
c. 1800 



GERMAN PORCELAIN THURINGIA, BOHEMIA 39 



MAKK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


R 


Rauenstein 


rffiT 


gilder's mark 




1783-1860. 


/ 


on ? Ansbach 


R-Vl; 


p. in black 


&M rl)f porcelain 


X 


c. 1787. 
p. in blue 


5. / 


Schlaggenwald 

(Bohemia) 
1792 onwards 


y \>x x 


Modern 


\fftj{l 


Lippe and Hesse. 


J\ 


mark 


^v^ 


p. or stamped 


13 *V 












5\ & 


Thun-Klbsterle 


/a 


Gera ^2*J& 


1793 onwards 


& 


c. 1780 


K.. 


p. in blue 


9 


C/. Gotha 


(& 




G 




V 




ft 


? Sitzerode ITSC 




* 


Fulda j ^Jf 




o> 


1768-0. 1790 
Fiirstlich TS fll> 


Prague 
imp. 


T 


Fuldaisch. 
p. in blue 

Cross from arms 
of prince-bishop 


ffif\ 


1793 onwards 
Teinitz 
Wrtby 
1793 onwards 


i 


of Fulda 


*^*J2jgJ^: 


imp. 


vu 




J*^ 


(Pottery) 


CS~fr 


p. in black 


f. 


Giessliiibel 


F 


? Fulda 


jf 


1 (by Karlsbad) 
1793 onwards. 






1 


BK imp. since 


X^ 


Potschappel 


BK 


1815 




( near Dresden ) 




Dalwitz 




T for Thieme. 
1 9th cent. 


D 


1804 onwards 
imp. 


JZ cc* 




FF 




f7 If 


Uncertain 


D 




\/ 


marks 


F-SLU 


Eodau 


^x)l OC/^L 




*7* 


(Karlsbad) 


^ 'X > 




va/t/tc^irtt 


1810 onwards 








imp. 



BOHEMIA AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





KLUM 

Neumark 
Klentsch 

HARDMUTH 



Altrohlau 

(Karlsbad) 

from 1813 

onwards 

imp. 



A. Nowotny 

Elbogeu 

1815 onwards. 

p. in blue till 

1833, and then 

imp. 

Haidinger 
brothers 



Budau 

1825 onwards 
mostly p. in blue 



Schelten 

1820 onwards 

P for Palme 

imp. 

Pirkenhammer 

Carl Fischer 

c. 1840 

imp.- 

Fischer and 
Reichenbeck 

Khun 

imp. 

Neumark 

Klentsch 

Budweis 

The last four 
from about 1820 
imp. 



ienne 



Jii / \j Yen nee. 



H 



/f 



Vienna 

(1718 onwards) 

Austrian shield 

used from 1774 

in blue, and after 

1827 impressed. 

Since 1784 last 

two numerals of 

the date are often 

impressed as well 



Antonius.Anreiter, 
painter 



I. A. Bottengruber 
who also painted 

in his own 
establishment in 

Breslau. 
(See p. 35) 



Herend 

in Hungary 

1 9th cent. 

Celebrated for 

copies of Oriental, 

Sevres, Capo di 

Monte, and other 

porcelains. Imp. 

Hollitsch 

. faience and 

earthenware 

1743-1827 



and other initials 

combined with 

H 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARYMISCELLANEOUS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



+5 

7.AL 

P 



HtlNTHAL 




Salzburg 

1736-1815 

faience 

Moser 
1736-77 

J. Pisotti 
1777-1814 



Gniunden 

1740-1820 
J. Reinthal 



E. Fotingcr 
Auspitz 



Frain 
late 1 8th cent 



Znaim 

Klammerth 
igth cent. 





Limoges 



HAC? 



Funfkirchen 
(Pecs) 

W. Zsolnay 
1855 onwards 
(lustred wares) 



The Hague 

Modern porcelain 
works if\ the 

suburb of 

Rosenburg den 

Haag 



Mettlach 

Villeroy and Boch 
Mark on modern 

pottery 
(Seep. 51) 



Limoges 

Marks of Havi- 
land and Co. , an 
American firm of 
porcelain manu- 
facturers 



Mark on modern 
Italian majolica 



42' 



DENMARK, FRANCE, ETC. ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Copenhagen 

porcelain 

Anton Carl Luplau 
modeller. 

Ondrup, painter 
1779-87 

Andreas Hald 
modeller (1781-97) 



J. J. Holm 
sculptor 

Johan Christoph 

Bayer, painter 

1768-1812 

Jacob Schmidt 
modeller 
1779-1807 



Hans Meehl 
modeller c. 1791 

Jensen, painter 
c. 1820 

Lyngbe, painter 
c. 1830 

Arnold Krog, 

art-director 

1885 onwards 

C. F. Liisberg, 

painter, etc. , 

1885-1909 

V. Engelhardt 

chemist 
1892 onwards 



on modern copies 
of early wares. 



line ret 




3.X. 



CHOISY 




P. 



eui 



Uet 




= patent : on 
Danish porcelain 



Thun or Thoune, 

Switzerland 

1 9th cent. 



France 

Jarry at Aprey 
p. 67 



Quimper 
p. 67 



Choisy-le-roi 

early 
i gth cent, 
creamware 

Paillartand Hautin 
1824-36 

Chantilly 
h. p. porcelain 

? Potter 
late 1 8th cent. 



Paris, i gth cent, 
p. 76 

Spain 

? Malaga 
1 5th cent. 



Buen Retiro 
p. 92 



THE NETHERLANDS, SCANDINAVIA, 

RUSSIA, SWITZERLAND, AND 

ALSACE-LORRAINE 

THE tin-glazed earthenware made at Delft in Holland is so 
celebrated that the word delft has come to be used as a generic 
term for the stanniferous wares of the North of Europe. Though 
the use of tin glaze was understood in the Netherlands at least a 
century earlier, it was about the year 1 600 that the manufacture 
developed in Delft. The processes used at Delft were in most 
respects similar to those of the Italian maiolica potters (see p. i), 
but the results were very different owing to the divergent styles 
of decoration affected in the two countries. The object of the 
potters of Delft was to make a ware resembling blue and white 
Oriental porcelain. Hence the predominance of Oriental forms 
and of blue painting after the style of the Chinese. Towards the 
end of the seventeenth century coloured ornament in " Old Japan " 
style came into fashion, and still later enamel painting on the 
glaze was adopted. The marks of the earlier wares are usually 
in blue : the coloured specimens were often marked in colours or 
gold. The marks are as far as possible grouped in factories each 
of which had its sign, like an inn, e.g. The Three Bells, The 
Flower Pot, The Claw, etc. The remaining marks are arranged 
chronologically, the last being that of Jan Van Putten & Co., 
with whom the old Delft industry may be said to have ended in 
the first half of the nineteenth century, though imitations of the 
old wares are made at this day. The manufacture of tin-glazed 
wares showing the influence of Delft spread rapidly over the North 
of Europe ; England, Scandinavia, and the North of Germany 
numbered many factories, while in France the manufacture became 
national and developed a character of its own. The tin-enamelled 
wares died out gradually owing to the improvements in the 
making of porcelain and the cheaper and more serviceable 

43 



44 POTTERY MARKS 

English earthenwares invented in Staffordshire at the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

A red unglazed ware after the manner of the Chinese " buccaro " 
was made in Holland by de Milde and de Calve early in the 
eighteenth century. 

A few hard-paste porcelain factories were established in Holland 
and Belgium towards the end of the eighteenth century, and an 
important manufacture of soft-paste porcelain, after the French 
fashion, flourished at Tournay from 1750-1799. 

The principal Scandinavian potteries were at Herreboe, Ror- 
strand (a district of Stockholm), and at Marieberg. Tin-enamelled 
faience after the fashion of Delft was the chief product, though 
porcelain also was made at Marieberg for some years. 1 The 
hard-paste porcelain of Copenhagen was first made in 1772, and 
the factory holds an important position for its artistic wares at the 
present time. It had been preceded by the manufacture of soft 
paste, examples of which are very rare. 

Russian porcelain was made principally at the Royal factory 
in St. Petersburg, and by Gardner and Popoff in Moscow : hard 
paste, after the manner of Meissen, was made at both places. 

Stove-tiles, slip-wares, and tin-enamelled faience were produced 
in considerable quantity in Switzerland in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, chiefly at Winterthur, Zurich, Schaffhausen ; 
.and porcelain works flourished at Zurich and Nyon, making chiefly 
hard-paste porcelain, though soft paste was tried for a time at 
Zurich. 

In Alsace-Lorraine the principal factories were those of Strass- 
burg, Hagenau, and Niderviller where good faience and hard- 
paste porcelain were made in the eighteenth century. The 
.Strassburg faience is noted for its rococo forms and its enamelled 
decoration resembling the painting on porcelain. Fine earthen- 
ware and terra-cottas were made at Luneville and at Niderviller, 
the figures and groups modelled by Cyffle at the former place, 
and Lemire at the latter being justly celebrated. 

1 The factory at Rorstrand has for many years produced many varieties 
of porcelain, earthenware, and stove-tiles. Its present-day porcelain is worthy 
.of note. 



HOLLAND DELFT 



45 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




The Alpha 






<t r* 


Samuel van 


Q 'A. K 


Gillis de Koning 


3^ 


Eenhorn . 


j ^ 


1721 


JVOH 
X 


J. van der 
Heul, 1701 


HDK.. 
1>JK 


Hendrick de 
Koning 

Thomas Spaan- 
donck, 1764 


A-DEX 
ITD 


Jan Theunis 
Dextra, 1759 


FV5 


The Flowerpot 
Pieter van der 
Stroom, 1693 


7T 


Jacobus Haider 


CjLf* 


= Blow pot 


T^H 


Andriaensz 


*&& 


Paulus van der 
Burgh ( or Verburg ] 


" 






1759 




The Boat 


/~\ s-r 




7~} \ft f t 


Dirck van der 


(] C^ t~L 


The Fortune 


L-s- V\ OOC?i 


Kest, 1675 


J 1 *t JK 


Joris Oosterwijck 






ft ~t^^* 


1 706 


IDA 


Johann den Appel 
1759 


CH. -T J-ortvyn. 











Pieter van den 


, - 




P VJ-&' 


Briel, 1759 


( t )^ f^ 






Widow van den 


^^-*/ 


The Claw 


VX/ V '06 


Briel 


/^i) 






The Four Roman 


*> 




iB 


Heroes 


\ 






Mathijs Boender 


t?\>- 


Cornelia van 




1713 




Schoonhoven or 


-r> i i n'T" 




CV:S 


Cornelius van 
Schagen, 1694 


t'ka-rr 


The Stag 


BVS LKS 


Bettje and Lysbet 
van Schoonhoven 
1702 


HVMD 


Hendrick van 
Middeldijk, 1764 


i^ 7) . 


Kornelis van 


A1DK. 





rv V-' 


Dyck, 1759 












The Metal Pot 


J^ 


The Double 
Flagon 


P 


Pieter van Kessel 
1634 





Amerensie van 








Kessel, 1675 


<^ 


Lambertus 






T~j 


Cleffius. 1667 


\JC* 


Louwys Fictoor 






** t 


1689 


i /- 1 ^ 








Uri. \* 


Laml>ertus van 








Eenhorn, 1691 



HOLLAND DELFT 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




The Metal Pot 




The Porcelain 


c vt 


Cornelis van 


/ 1 A I 


Bottle 




der Kloot, 1695 


J *^ r / 


Jan Sicktis van 


jyp 


Pieter Paree 
1759 
The New 


ED 


den Houk, 1659 

Pieter van 
Doorne, 1759 


IVH 


Saracen's Head 
Johannes Ver- 
hagen, 1759 


I-L 


Johannes Harlees 
1770 


\^f s 


The Old 
Saracen's Head 
I. W. Jacob 


O 






Wemmersz 






iK 


Hoppestein, 1661 
Jacobus Kool 


DH- 


Dirck Harlees 
I7Q 1 ; 


&^\ 


1676 




/ yo 


R$ 


Rochus Jacobs 
Hoppestein, 1680 


P 


The Porcelain 
Dish 

Johannes Pennis 


/K 


Anthoni Kruis- 
weg, 1759 


f 


1759 


GV'S 


Geertruy 
Verstelle, 1764 


CPJS 




y ' V' ^ 




T/> ' " 


Johannes van 






\fjuyn 


Duyn, 1764 


_ 


The Peacock 


/?*\ 


The Roman 


^./w 7 


1651 
= D. Paiew 


\y 


_ ATI 




P/VX/ 




^ 


Imitations of 


-^r 




^A^ 


Chinese marks 


-7-DAZ 


Jacobus de Milde 
1759 


<?K 




/> 


The Pole 

= Inde Dessel 


A <3L> 


Petrus van 






A^l : i,V-^\ 


Marum, 1759 


J'v 


The Porcelain 








Axe 


lyt 


Renier Hey, 1697 


~' y^ ) 


1679 






* 


Justus Brouwer 
1759 


Bf 


Johannes van der 
Kloot Jansz, 1764 



HOLLAND DELFT 



47 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


V ng 


The Rose 

1675 


\gf 

" 


The Three Ash- 
barrels 

Gerrit Pietersz 


^ 






Kam, 1674 


(23 




\ 


De drie 


*& 




**&**** 


Aschtonncn 


T^ 




^t \fl LlfQrtL 


Hendrick van 


cw 






Hoorn, 1759 


n 


Dirck van der 


HvH 






Does, 1759 


A 




^r/ 


The Star 


A A 


The Three Bells 


'/^ 


1690 


1 r 




(4 


Damis Hofdick 
I70S 


\U> 


\Yillem van der 
Does, 1764 


X p 


Cornells de 




The Three 


\x 


Berg, 1720 


\W^. 


Bottles 


. 






Willem Kool 


cyy 






1697 


. 


Aalmis, 1720 
(also at Rotter- 


^ 


The Three 
Porcelain Bottles 


1 /\Cl l+n*. 5 


dam) 




Jacobus Pynacker 


tB 


Justus de Berg 
1759 


J? 


1672 


AK 


Albertus Kiell 
1764 


B 


Hugo Brouwer 
1764 




The Ewer 




The Three Tuns 


L T* Kctrv 


or (Lampet kan) 


t Dex. 


Zacharias Dextra 


. 


founded by Gerrit 




1720 


,\ 


Brouwer, 1759 






( I/ 






The Two 


L r 




\XX:VB 


Savages 
Willem van Beck 


(^PK 






1764 


P et~Pc -n. 




JP 


The Two 


1 


Abraham van der 
Keel, 1780 


RI . 


Wherries 
Anthony Pennis 
1759 



HOLLAND DELFT 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Miscellaneous 






TOKE 


Thomas Jansz 


A'l 


Arij Jansz, 1658 


SWA 


1590-1611 


TYFRVToK 


Frederick van 
Frytom, 1658 


JL T 


Gerrit 






'^"l 4 


Hermansz 


yc, 


Jan Groenlant 
1660 


4 


6 


Cornelis 
Cornelisz, 1628 


i 


Jan Ariensz van 






if 

* 


Hammen, 1661 




Pieter van 








Kessel 


/TT\ 


Jan Jansz 






f pry 1 


Culick (or 


LC 


Lambrecht 
Ghisbrechts, 1640 


1 y 


Kulick), 1662 






Kx 


Johannes Kruyck 


~f*\AfYm+k l^_ 

Its-, 


Isaack Junius 
1640 


rc_ 


1662 

Jacob Cornelisz 
(van der Burgh) 


/K 


Aelbrecht de 
Keiser, 1642 


2<l 


1662 


c/K 


1 1 


'T 


Augustijn 


i 


Ghisbrecht 
Lambrechtse 
Krayk, 1645 
(who worked 


n& 
/ i\_ 


Reygens (or ' 
Reygensberg) 
1663 


9 ^ 


? at The Alpha) 


"* 




Or 




\<tTtr 




*-^/ 


" 


V\\ 


Willem Kleftijus 


K 


" 


T 


1663 


/i 


Jan Gerrits 


7 nvv 


Jan de Weert 


VrT" 


van der Hoeve 


J y Y r 


1663 


f* 


1649 






I 




~^*T\ 


Johannes Mesch 


-' 




X-> Jj 


1667 


^^\Sm 

Jf^^f^ 


Q. Aldersz 
Kleijnoven, 1655 


R 


Pieter Gerritsz 
Kam, 1667 






^**^/ 


Cornelis 


IVK 


Jeronimus 
Pietersz van 
Kessel, 1655 


CH 


Albrechtsz de 
Keizer, 1668 
The same com- I 
bined with Adrien 








Pynacker 



HOLLAND DELFT 



49 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Miscellaneous 






P 


Jan Pietersz 

1668 


I 


Sixtius van der 
Sand, 1705 


r 


Flyt. M. Byclok 
1669 


3 S 


Johannes 


AT 


Arij Jansz van 
der Meer, 1671 


OAALf 


Gaal, 1707 


LK 


Lucas Pietersz 
van Kessel, 1675 


JG 








. 


(MVB = Math: 


*7J \f^ f 


Dirck Jansz van 


y C' 


van der Bogaert 


J: r.'jffiit 


Schie, 1679 




I 7 I 4) 






fe<f\jjun)u& \fA 


Leonard van 





Johannes 


<*^^^2? 


Amsterdam, 1721 


f ^J^ 


Groen, 1683 






^^^ 




f^ /J^ ^'"^ <O 


Paulus van der 


*K 




J VW8 


Stroom, 1725 


M 


Adriaen 
Pynacker, 1690 


"yty f ~f! 
(/'Uiejs. <T. 


Frederick van 
Hesse, 1730 


&. 




JCJ" 




^ 


Pieter Poulisse 
1690 


R, 




/L/s\>y 


Johannes van 








der Wai, 1691 


P9/ 

\i ytfaot/r* 


Piet Vizeer, 1752 


\>A 


Lucas van 








Dale, 1692 






I .* 




G ^erh t- 


1760 


<y 


Jan van der 


(LH.9L 




Jv& 


Buergen (or 
Verburg), 1693 


TWto 


Jan van Putten 
and Co., 1830. 






* V^ XL ^ C- 


Combined the 








Three Bells, Claw 


^ V^k.^ 


Cornells 




and Rose factories 


V *^r 


Witsenburg, 1696 


jiQ 








iVH t^^ 


Amsterdam 




J. Baan 


I vr4^a/-y ' 




T. TJ 


c. 1698. (Also 
AB in monogram 


TVr 


c. 1780 
H. van Laun 




for A. C. Bromver 


/ 






1699) 







5 



HOLLAND AND BELGIUM PORCELAIN 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




w j; 





HmtteL 



Holland 

Early i8th cent. 
on red ware 



Weesp 

1764-71 
h.p. 

p. in blue 



p. in blue and 
red 



? Luxemburg 

Late i8th cent. 
h.p. 

p. in lilac 

The Hague 

Arms of the 

town 
1775-86 

h.p. 
p. in blue 

p. in red 



Oude Amstel 

1782-0. 1800 
h.p. 



p. in blue 



A. Dareuber, 
director 



.oLa.fcn.de Contft 





OudeLoosdrecht 

c. 1772-1782 



Moll, the founder 

h.p. 

Inc. , p. in blue 
and red 



Amsterdam 

1810 
h.p. 



? Painted only 
at Rotterdam 



Tournay 

1750-99 

Porcelain, s.p. 

A tower, arms of 

the town 

Early mark 

p. in red, gold, 
and blue 



Arms of Peterinck 

(founder of the 
factory) 1769-97 

p. in blue and 
gold 

ID? initials of 

the painter 

Duvivier 



Tournay faience 



BELGIUM PORCELAIN AND EARTHENWARE 51 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



B 



VWSSEL 




Brussels 

Late 1 8th cent. 

Rue d'Aremberg 

1791 

Porcelain, h.p. 
L. Crette\ 
p. in red 

? Ebenstein. 
p. in brown 

? Brussels or 

Thuringian. 

p. in blue 



Faience, 1705. 

Witsenburg 
and Mombaers. 



Ph. Mombaers 
1724 



Liege 
1 8th cent. 



ccc 





Tervueren 

1767-81 

Manufactory of 

Prince Charles of 

Lorraine in the 

Castle of 

Tervueren. 

Faience 

Malines 
1 8th cent, 

Bruges 

Briquet from the 

arms of the town 

1 8th cent. 

H. Pulinx 

Luxemburg 

(Septfontaines) 
Boch brothers 
1767 onwards 

Earthenware 



Ardennes 

B. Lammens 

and Co. 

Early igth cent. 
Earthenware 



A. van der Waert 



52 NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK FAIENCE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION-. 


c. 


Herreboe 


Jf-l^-6o 


Rorstrand 


^ 


(Norway) 
Faience 


^ 


(Stockholm) 
1726-83 


' 




/^-jr'H. 




*fc 






Marieberg 


*& 




12. 69 


1758-0. 1789 
Faience 


//-5 


Gudumluud 


$, 




Fo<64o/+ /. 


Wolfsen and Sons 
1805 

Stockholm 


^L^ 


Gustafsberg 

Godenius, 


T 


X 


Rorstrand 


^ /ryf 


1820 onwards 


-?r 


1726-83 
Faience 




Copenhagen 

Porcelain 


A* 4^5-r 




<^ 


s.p. 1760-65 
Cypher of 
Frederick V. in 


<%^ 





-..-ur,. 


gold and blue. 
1772 onwards 
h.p. The mark 
represents the 
Three Belts. 


tyZrfrZ* fy 




"^ 


p. in blue 


f/ 




C$3 


? Copenhagen, 
p. in blue 


^ 




B.&G 


Bing and 
Grondahl 
1853 onwards 



SWEDEN AND RUSSIA PORCELx\IN 



53 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Marieberg 




St. Petersburg 


rv xff*. 


1758-89 


. *. 


porcelain, h.p. 


iMtS\ 


Porcelain, s.p. 


\Sf 


c. 1745 onwards. 


I ID' 


c. 1758. Inc. 


v^' 


The double eagle 








occurs in a wreath 




H.p. The Three 


(LL*) 


Royal cyphers. 


LL4 


crowns from the 


Xx> 


p. in blue. 




arms of Sweden 


I 1 


Catherine II. 


~/CB 


and initials of 


v^x 


1762-96 




directors or artists 






& 


F. S. etc., 1778-82 
p. in blue. 


na 


? director's 
mark 


vl/ ijtr 




i 




vu 








f 


on a hybrid 
porcelain 


n s 

n ut/A>t, 


Pridvornie = 
belonging to the 
prince's court 


vij ^-f 


The three crowns 


r I 1 






and emblem of 


I . f 




^ 


the house of 
Vasa. 


d6 


Paul (1796-1801) 


* 


p. in pink 


n 








* ^ 


Alexander I. 


KIEBZ 


Russia 
Kieff pottery 


i 


(1801-25) 
Nicolas I. 






t 


(1825-55) 






*D 


Alexander II. 






^'^ ^ 


1855-81 




Stawsk 


art 
II 


Nicolas II. 

T ftn * . 


1094 




1843-7 








Pottery 




Moscow 


i.R 




FAPAHEPZ 


1780 
h.p. 


^ 


Baranowka 


Q 


Gardner 


JjGL TO. n v ffi(A 


in Volhynia 


x\^ ^"^ 






Porcelain, h.p. 


K&LLk 




,. 


p. in sepia 


w^ A 1 


pr. in red 


X^jpv 


Eorzec 


/GUE3^\ 




Xox"v<r 


Porcelain, h.p. 


wT'VCT^^) 




9 ^ 


Early igth cent, 
p. in red 


^ 5 ^ 





54 RUSSIA & SWITZERLAND PORCELAIN & POTTERY 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Moscow 




Winterthur 


nonoBbi 


H.p. porcelain 
A. Popoff 


I-HG 


Hans Heinrich 
Graf, 1662 




Early igih cent. 






/n 


P. in blue 
Gospodina 


f 32 


? Ehrhardt 




factory : 






(Pi 




H. E. A. M. I. T. 


Stove tile makers) 


HyAMHA 


Gulena, potter 
c. 1850 


1647 








D M 










, Steckborn 


BPATbEBfc 


Brothers 
Korniloff, 


Daniel Hafner 
Sleckborn 


1790 . 




St. Petersburg 




Bern 


KopHMAOBhlXfc 


1827 


E. I. F. 


Friiting, 1772 


S? 




H. K. R. 1705 




(3aj><dL 





Simon Jean Renaud 


Neuchatel 


fc.7?A-i/n ciK^V 




fecit, 1769 




v- j?j 4> t 






Vaud 


J KiiAS 




Lutri 1602 


Lutry 




Mezer 






A ^ v I / 






Zurich 


NK yj^ 


Early igth cent. 


J5-92 


Pottery 


Sfl 




r W r 


Caspar Meyer 


jZm**wr 




^i 




L. P. 1620 


Winterthur 

(Switzerland) 


Bait us Meyer 1602 






Ludwig Pfau* 


Heinrich Stadler 


1670 


D. P. 1636 


David Pfau 










D. S. 


David Sulzer 


A. P. 1686 


Abraham Pfau 


Hans Ulrich Hegner 


1656 


A. B. 1638 


(Signatures, chiefly 


Hans Jacob DA. KER 


1724 




on stove tiles) 






S. M. S. 1647 




Hoffmann pinxit 


1757 


H. P. Z 






Zurich 


B. E 




2 JL 


Faience 
1763-1791 



SWIT/.KRLAND, LORRAINE POTTERY & PORCELAIN 55 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




? Solotburn 




Strassburg and 


S I7 7 H C W 


Pottery 


* 


Hagenau 


4O 




// 


Joseph Hannong 






H 


Porcelain, h.p. 
1760-80. 


o 


(Poppelsdorf 


H//"* / / 


p. in blue 




near Bonn 


/ 'j- It 




fth *^f 


i8th cent. 


i 






M. Wessel) 


H 












Schaffhausen 


^* 




Schaphuysen 


c. i79S 


J. <C2.2 




Gerrit Evers 


Slip ware 


T 




Paulus Hammekers 


c. 1743 


V/ T>U/ 


? Strassburg 




/ ^o 


f \r* 


Faience 




Zurich 


\\/ / 






porcelain 


w 




~-J 


(1763-1791) 
s.p. at first 
afterwards h.p. 
p. in blue 


Jt 


Niderwiller 

Beyerld ; faience 
1754 ; porcelain 
h.p. 1765- 


S*t- 


Nyon 






.^*j j^>*C 


1781-1813 


f^./^ 


Comte de Custine 


"^ 


Arms of the town 


J* 


1780-1801 


D 


p. in blue 
D = ? Dortu 


x bt JC 




Gftfe 


1789 


-Wkt^ 






Gide, painter 


vify 








X 




C?$ j-* s* 






Claude Fran9ois 


y cA" L Vx Pfluger freres 


(7]ff 


Lanfrey, 


^-Tr- *~ 1 ^ "^ & CO. 


VI 


manager to 1801, 


^"C^-^"""" 


Cji^^ 


and proprietor 


Strassburg 


k -'C7 


to 1827 


C# c/,. 


Ch. Hannong 
(1710-39) 
Faience and 


NIDERVILLER 

Z^ A/itw? Aini 


1 8th cent. 
Lemire, modeller 




porcelain 


N Nider 


since 1794 


TJ MX t-^*- 


H.p. 1721-55- 






il Ji> * * 


p. in blue 


Niderwiller 




Q 






Lune'ville 


^(C 


Paul Hannong 

17-30- c.1 


/CYFFLEX 

(>\ LI/NEVILLE] 


(1731 onwards) 
Cyffle, modeller 
b. 1724, t 1806. 
pottery 


^ 


*/oy OT- 


5 





ALSACE, LORRAINE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. ' 




Luneville 










^B3lr 




TERRE DE 


(1731 ) 
Cyffle's 


'G3P 




LORRAINE 


terracottas 


/^^^?fe 


Saargemund 


y ^/ rv 




Hf^^jij 






ccOl/'^^' C** 




t3iv>. V^'Jiul 


Pot. and 






\r<^^^/ 


porcelain 


TDL 


= Terre de 
Lorraine 


^^2 




Ti 


Toul 

c. 1790 
Earthenware 

Bayard at Toul 


$ 


Utzschneider 
&Co. 


A: G. 


Keller and 


Hc6. 




LUNEVILLE 


Guerin 








late 1 8th cent. 







FRANCE 

IT is not yet definitely settled where the celebrated "Henri II. 
ware" was made. Formerly it was supposed to have been made at 
the Castle of Oiron, near Thouars, but it is now more generally 
assigned to the neighbouring village of Saint-Porchaire. This 
ware is very rare and remarkable. It is a fine, glazed earthenware 
of ivory colour, with stamped patterns, like those on contemporary 
book-bindings, inlaid with darker clays, and occasionally touched 
with colour. The shapes are carefully and elaborately moulded ; 
and the occurrence of the royal arms, and the cyphers of Henri II. 
and Diane de Poitiers attest the royal appreciation of the ware. 
Commoner lead-glazed earthenwares were made from early times 
at Beauvais, and in the neighbourhood of Saintes, but they are 
rarely marked. Nor has any marked example of undisputed 
Palissy ware been found. Bernard Palissy, the most renowned 
of French potters, was born about 1510 near Saintes, and by 
extraordinary patience and all -sacrificing industry succeeded in 
making the peculiar type of pottery associated forever with his 
name. It is a fine dense pottery with rich lead-glaze mottled or 
splashed with blue, green, purple, and yellow : most of the pieces 
are enriched with relief designs, but perhaps the most characteristic 
are the rustic dishes with accurately moulded shells, lizards, eels, 
and aquatic creatures in relief and coloured after nature. Palissy 
is said to have died in the Bastille about i 592. His sons continued 
the work, and among his other followers were several potters at 
Avon, near Fontainebleau, including Barthelemy de Blemont, to 
whom the mark B B (p. 59) is attributed. Palissy ware has 
been frequently copied, Pull of Paris, about 1850, being particularly 
successful in this work. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the French potters 
devoted themselves to the manufacture of tin-enamelled faience, 

57 



58 POTTERY MARKS 

first in imitation of Italian maiolica, and afterwards of Dutch 
delft. The processes employed were essentially the same as 
those described on page i in connection with the Italian ware. 
Indeed the art was introduced into the south of France by Italian 
potters at the end of the sixteenth century, and the early wares of 
Lyons and Nevers are purely Italian in style. Among the many 
forms of decoration adopted on French faience five distinct schools 
are observable : (i) The Italian. (2) The Persian style adopted 
at Nevers for a short period in the seventeenth century ; it consisted 
of white floral ornament on a deep blue ground. (3) The Rouen 
school, characterised first by the use of scalloped borders and 
embroidery patterns, recalling lace work, and afterwards by a 
commoner decoration, in which a cornucopia is the central motive. 
(4) Delicate arabesques with Chinese figures and interfacings, after 
the designs of Berain, adopted at Moustiers early in the eighteenth 
century. (5) Enamelled bouquets of flowers and landscapes in 
scroll-edged panels, after the manner of the porcelain painters, 
introduced at Strassburg, and largely developed at Marseilles and 
elsewhere in the eighteenth century. About 1780 "cream-colour" 
and other English forms of fine earthenware threatened to oust 
the national faience, and attempts were made to produce the 
English types of earthenware, notably at Douai and Creil. The 
marks on French faience are mostly painted in blue, sometimes 
in colours. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN 

FRANCE was the home of soft-paste porcelain. At the end of 
the seventeenth century this ware was successfully made, first at 
Rouen, then at St. Cloud, and a few years later it was made at 
Lille, Mennecy, and Chantilly. The perfection of soft paste was 
reached at Vincennes and Sevres between the years 1740-70. 
The true soft -paste largely consists of a glassy composition 
or frit mixed with sand and marl or pipe-clay and other 
ingredients, and is coated with a luscious lead-glaze of creamy 
tone. The body is tender enough to be easily scratched with a 
steel point, and the glaze is so soft that the enamels painted upon 
it sink in and become incorporated in the moderate heat of the 



FRENCH PORCELAIN 



59 



enamelling kiln. The ware is very beautiful, but unsuited for 
household usage. About 1768 the manufacture of true or hard- 
paste porcelain from natural clays and rocks was introduced at 
Sevres, and very soon superseded the soft-paste there and elsewhere 
in France. It was made in large quantities in Paris from about 
1770 to the end of the century, but since then the chief centre of 
production has been Limoges. Figures and groups in " biscuit " 
or unglazed porcelain were made in both hard and soft paste. 
These are usually marked by incising in the raw body, whereas 
the glazed wares are marked by painting in under-glaze blue, 
over-glaze red, and other colours or gilding, and on the modern 
wares by printing chiefly in red. 



EARLY FRENCH EARTHENWARES 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION'. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




Saint Porchaire 

i6th century. 

Former!}' 
attributed to 

Oiron. 

The ware is 

commonly called 

" Henri II. ware.' 

The crescents 

refer to Diane 

de Poictiers 



Cypher of 

Henri II. and 

Diane de Poictiers 




H.B 




Beauvais 



i6th cent. 



Saintes 



1 6th cent. 

? Fran9ois Briot, 

Paris 

? Barthlemy de 
Btemont at Avon 



Mark of a 

follower of 

Palissy 



60 FRENCH FAIENCE LYONS, NEVERS, ROUEN 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Lyons 




Nevers 


Jyor^ 


Combe's pottery 
c. 1740 


bCf3*f} 


J. Custode 
1 7th cent. 


f C^ 




i6&c\- 


H. Borne 


I. P. S. 


? Patras 
c. 1750 


DLF 


Denis Lefebvre 
1636 


Patras 




FR 


Franpois 
Rodrique 
early i8th cent. 


J. B. Revol 


c- 1753 






Pierre Marie Mongis 
Rogt 

Bondino 


c. 1750 

And others in 
1 8th cent. 


L 


Jacques Seigne 
1726 






l\ / /IT) 


? Nicolas Viode 


. 


Nevers 


I " i^/ 


c. 1700 


'5^ 


late 1 6th cent. 

Dominique 
Conrade 


E 




^COUT^ 




XSR 


Signoret 
1870 


^1^U(T^ 

A 


Jacques Bourdu 
at the Conrade 
factory early 
1 7th cent. 


^ 


T. Ristori 
1850 


% 




j c % ^ 


Rouen 


i B 


? J. Boulard 


/6 " 7 





FRENCH FAIENCE ROUEN 



61 



MARK.- 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


l> ( (f L^J 


Rouen 
(1644-0. 1800) 
Guillebaud 


Gar Jin. 


Rouen 

1782 

P. Omonz 


1722 






179 




Bome Prnxit 




Q man/ 




Anno i>38 




JfiuUtauw 




(T3* 7 3 * 


Claude Borne 


* 




VJc/ 




VC^ - 


? Le Vavasseur 


I Pe*DV 


1734 
I75 6 


* 




EL 




n 




p ' 


Veuve Foss6 


)H. j/ 




T055C 


c. 1757 


N 




C>ft/diW 


1759 


) 




slT 


c. 1756 

1743-94 


I'P- 


And oilier 
numbers 
(see p. 62) 


ffl uaffeufy 
& Roucut 


Le Vavasseur 
1743-1800 


t* 




,/y^R 




1 B 




VR, 









62 FRENCH FAIENCE ROUEN 




A number of 
marks prob- 
ably of 
painters 
from c. 1750 
onwards. 

Numbers 

also occur 

referring to 

the value of 

the ware. 

Single letters 
also occur on 
ware made in 



f* S+ two pieces 

O& 



(e.g. sugar- 
castors) to 
identify the 
parts. 



FRENCH FAIENCE ST. CLOUD, SINCENY, LILLE 63 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



T 

S -5 J 



St. Cloud 
c. 1670 onwards 

T initial of Trou 
c. 1710 



Sinceny 
1734-1864 



L JLC. 






Bertrand 
Joseph Bedeau 



z. m 



Pierre Jeannot 

L. Material 
Ghiiil 




FJ? 



D 
L 



LL 



Rouy 

I79O-C. 1850 

Lille 

J. Boussemart 
(1729-1802) 



J. F. Boussemart 

(Lille or St. 

Amand) 



Painter's mark 



? Dorez 



Dorez (1720-50) 

Faience and 

porcelain 



? Lille 



Lefebvre et Petit 



64 FRENCH FAIENCE VALENCIENNES, MOUSTIERS 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Valenciennes 




Moustiers 


<JT% 


F. L. Dorez 
Early i8th cent. 


G. viry f. a Moustiers 
chez CUrissy 1711 


1679-1852 

Cleiissy's factor) 
1679-1748 


V 


Picard's factoiy 
c. 1756 


F. V. F. 


Franyois Viry 
fecit 
c. 1685 

Gaspard Viry 




Saint- Am and - 


G. V. F. 


fecit 


/ "l W 


les-Eaux 






Sty&A 


1 8th cent, 
marks of Pierre 
Fauquez 


VfP* 


? Fouque 
successor of 
Cterissy 


^ 




J-J-. If 




cT ^v^^A_ 




/c r> 


Fouque and 


^^oC^* "** 




C^lv* 


Pelloquin 


-O<5T 




c/3 


1749- 


r>Q 




r f( 


Jean Etienne 


v 




^ 


Baron, c. 1750 


$ 




MCA '?*& 




c/jv 




f pd 


? Ferraud 


/* c . 




f / ' 


Painters at 


oC0uu3 ^Ou.iu)Uy 


Painter t 1815 


<youu.. 


CleYissy's 


s 




TVT / 9i 7 


1 8th cent. 






JMfGUCc UllAJL. 


See also 


J>yW 


Dijon 

1669-1854 


COL 


Alcora (p. 90) 


^ 




<5 





FRENCH FAIENCE MOUSTIERS 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


/K 


Olerys, a painter 
at CleYissy's 
factory, started 
a pottery in 1738. 


/;''. ii.^ ^"i',1 
vvy ^\\ 


Moustiers 

Guichartl 
c. 1763 


W & / 71 <2f 
Jk. " -Av -t 

<?Q (^ / /// 

< 4? 


The monogram 
of O L indicates 
his work. 

His factory lasted 
till 1749, his 
partner being 
Langiers. 

After 1749 he 
worked as a 
painter again 
till 1783. 


+ X 


Varages 
c. 1750 

Tavernes 


S. Jc. ?% 




G 5* 


c. 1760 


$1 A 




#G* 


G. for Gaze 


+-~ 




/C3X 


Marseilles 


'Oy, 




Q^^^ 


A. Cle"rissy, 1697 


PF S-P 


? Ferraud 


\\g. n a.r(ei\lt7 1 




jfj* J J 


Late 1 8th cent. 
? Ac hard 


<l\Wl(f& j^^p- 

7fv ^^p 


? Savy, 
1749- 
The fleur-de-lys 
after 1777 


L4 (fjL ^- 


P. Fournier 





J. G. Robert 
c. i75 -93 


/*"*\, 




V l/ll 


Veuve Perrin 
c. 1760 


^ ^ 




B- 

F. 


Antoine Bonnefoy 
J. Fauchiez 


^L 


1778 


Jh7^9 


Jacques Borelli 
(seep. 21 ) 
1781 



66 FRENCH FAIENCE MONTAUBAN, LA ROCHELLE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Montauban 




Nimes 


/TO Ou.Cn.a>n>C~ 


(1720-1820) 
Mouchard, 1792 


PBC. 


Plautier 
Boncoirant & Co. 


Js 






1 9th cent. 


' c/rLc^t". 




KJO 


La Rochelle 


rAZ /;/ 


D. Lestrade 


^ 


last half of the 
1 8th cent. 


^\ 


Lapierre 

Lapierre et 
Quinquiry 
c. 1780 


& 




~ 


Clermont- 


f 




CLermonvfv 


Ferrand 


^^ 




in 


1734 


* C 


? Pouhet 
Colin or Chaux 


f\ / 


Samadet 






^ftlCLctgL 
Sf. GsrvitQ 


1732 
Ardus 


ft 

-J*R- 


1783 

Jean Roland 
1780 


1736 
Pichon, c. 1752 


' 




M 15 


Manufacture 


D 


Dupre', c. 1740 




La RocheHe 


/J^\ 


Montpellier 
Le Voulant 


/I /PAN" 


Marans 
1740-56 


(|y 


1 8th cent. 


R- 




ViV 




s% 


Sceaux 


Laurens Basso 
A Toulousa 

NISMES, 1581 


Toulouse 
1756 

Nimes 


SP <j> 


1736-1813 5 
S P = Sceaux j 
Penthievre. Th< 
anchor refers to 
the Due de P.i 




>tJL^ ^^' 


high admiral 






" 


of France 



FRENCH FAIENCE APREY, RENNES, QUIMPER 67 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


ffii 


Aprey 

1744- 
Jarry, painter, 
and others 


T 


Rennes 
Tortia 


eAV, 




Pierre Le Due 


1834 


A 




Morice (Jean) 


1834 


/<P G- 




IRPAIV&LEAV 


Nantes 


r\ 


Rennes 


16+5 




hirel ilc ehoisy pencil 


H. de Choisy 
1767 


B ' , 


Apt 

i8th cent. 


./"S 




ajff-y 


Bordeaux 


n u 




JVo- 


Vieillard & Co. 
igth cent. 


C% ^ 




|R 


Lahens and 
Rafeau 


CHOISY FT 






Poitiers 







A ?^T 




i>7 




P.P 


F^lix Faucon 


pinxit baron a rcuncs 
Michel Derennes 


Baron 
1772 

1771 


TC C 


Quimper 

(i6go-c. 1800) 

Pierre Caussy 


fait a Rennes Rue Hue 


1769 


^ 


1749-85 


I. nc Douchereau 
Raymond 


1780 


^m 


A. de la 
Hubeaudiere 
1782- 





68 FRENCH FAIENCE ST. OMER, VRON, DESVRES, DOUAI 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


H 


St. Omer 

1751-90 


DOUAf 


Douai 

1780-1820 


M 




JO) 


Leigh & Co. 


J\f^ 




dSsPHafl^ 


Cream ware in 






^jjj/ 


English style 


P 

ff 
\f\ 




win 






Aire 


L k^C ie 




f\ I'Ls 


1780 


eif 




-"** 




W 




r 


? Prudhomme 


I X 






Vron 






\v 


late 1 8th cent. 


T I* * 1 C 


Houze', de 1'Aul- 




Verlingue 


L*7 *J 


noit & Co. 


^A 




^^" 


1784 


/ i -7^ j nftt.^9. i 






followed by 








Halsfort in 1788 


&' 




D. C. B R A. 








R. 




J X^jasvuasf 


? Vron 






1696 




HALSFORT 




/ 


Desvres 










BLONDEL 




Fait a Desvres, 1778 












Martin Damtnan 


1799-1803 


/. van der Plas 






Castillon 




Dupre'-Poulaine 


Castilhon 


late 1 8th cent. 


o ]p 


1732 




fipinal 


C^^j A p 




EPINAL 


T I^C*f* 


' 









Premieres 


C- ly 

f <> 




*L* C/P 
S.PAUL 


J. Lavalle 


St. Paul 
1 8th and 
igth cent. 



FRENCH FAIENCE CREIL, ORLEANS 



69 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Creil 




Bourg la Reine 


CKEDL 


1794 
Cream ware 


/'"'; 


Veuve Laurier 






3 


et fils. 




Monogram of 


\J 


Rebus of 


(fSPT) 


Stone, Coquerel 


\ 


Chapelet, painter. 


**^A^ 


and Legros, 


^f 


i gth cent. 


\*Jkr 


transfer- printers 






PARIS 


in Paris 








c. 1830 


^1^ 


Tours d'Aigues 


Angouleme 


Angouleme 


^jJ"t/$ 


1 8th cent. 


anno, 1770 










Casamene 


iUlTL 




dffik 




l\ \\ 


c- 1753 


lAnffllnft 


Early igth cent. 


/ n \ 




W*jjW 


(near Beban9on) 











Berqerac 


Bergerac 


CAMBRAY 


Cambray 


j 




EPERNAY 


Epernay 
I7th and i8th 


n 


Renac 




cent. 


_/ ^ <> 


1 8th cent. 




Vauvert 


^ r 




JEAN GAUTIER 


(near Nimes) 
c. 1736 




Courcelles 




Martres 


Courcelles 


(Maine), c. 1783 


fait a Martres 


1775 




Saint Longe 






Saint Longe 


Late 1 8th cent. 




Goult 






+ M 




Lacouves Gallet 


Ligron 

1787. Copy of 


1740 






de Ligron 


Palissy ware 




Moulins 






n Moulins 


1 8th cent. 










,>'*-> 


Orleans 


Cholletfecit 
de Moulain 


1742 





1753 


BUR 


Bourg la Reine 


T3UH 




BR Op 


1 8th cent. 


JL0I5C-ES 


Forges les Eaux 
1 8th cent, 
imp. 



yo FRENCH FAIENCE CHANTILLY, ST. CLEMENT 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




? Mennecy 




Langeais 


D V 


or Rouen 


V 


Landais 




1 8th cent. 


4 o 


igth cent. 




<**' 


Style of Palissy , 


Claude Pelisie 


Val Sous 






1726 


Meudon 










Li talien ne 


near Beauvais 








late 1 8th cent. 


M. Sansont 








1738 







Batignolles 






J-^i 


igth cent. 






"Q/ 


Lesorre 


d'Entoine 
d"engle fonta ine 


Englefontaine 






CHANTILLY 


Chantilly 

1 8th cent. 


(^% 


Rubelles 

(Seine et Marne) 






K!!!/ 


1836-58 








Baron de Tremble 




M. Aaron 


A. D. T. 




MA 


Tft 1 r 




1 S 


i45 


M 


porcelain 
Mathaux 
(Champagne) 


Manufacture 
de Saint CU/nent 


Saint Clement 

1757 




1751-1800 







CH . 


Ognes 

(Aisne), 1748-82 


GALLE NANCY 


igth cent. 








Gien 


.-/ Limoges 


Limoges 


Geofroi 


igth cent. 


1741 








Fait a tours 


Tours 


iTn 


Geoffroi 


1782 




'tfJBJfo* 


pr. and imp. 


LOVIS LIAVTE 




UPV 


Bayeux 






C .i - 


1810 


avisseau a tour 


Avisseau 
c. 1855 


<w* 


porcelain 


V^^ 




Saint A mans 


Lamarque 


JIC 


imitations of 
Palissy ware 


,* 


Meudon 

1 8th cent. 



FRENCH FAIENCE PARIS 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


SEVRES 


Sevres 
late 1 8th cent. 
Lambert, 


/ \'e. Dumas 


Paris 

1834-62 




Levasseur, 








Clavareau 
c. 1806- 
Voisinlieu 


PULL 


Pull, c. 1850 
Style of Palissy 


w 


initials of 
J. Ziegler 
(in a double 
quartrefoil). 
igth cent. imp. 


TO 

B V 


Th. Deck 
1859 

V. Barbizet 
1850 
Style of Palissy 




Paris 






Pajoit, 1787 
Claude Remey 


terracotta 
C. Remey 1817 


H 


Vincennes 
1767-71 
Hannong : 
faience 


OI.LIVIEK 
A PARIS 


Rue Roquette 
late 1 8th cent. 


^ 




Mas son 


formerly Olivier 
igth cent. 


S 




JR 


J. Petit, at 
Belleville 
1770 
Porcelain 






/f5^ 


M. Gille 






(f{!F$ 


1845 
Porcelain biscuit 






^"^ 


imp. 






PASCAL 


F. M. Pascal 






^ 


c. 1850 






^ 


J. Devers 
i gth cent. 







72 FRENCH PORCELAIN ST. CLOUD, LILLE, MENNECY 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




S- F- 



LL 



Paris 

? Reverend 

1664 

s.p. 

Saint Cloud 

late 1 7th cent. 

c. 1773 

s.p.. p. in blue 



Trou 
1712 



p. in blue and inc. 



p. in blue 




Lille 

1711 

s.p. 

Dorez. 

p. in blue 



Leperre Durot 

1784 

h.p. 

under patronage 
of the Dauphin 



p. in black 



VALENCIES 




Valenciennes 

1785-97 
h.p. 

Fauquez and 
Vannier 



Fauquet and 

Lamoninary. 

p. in blue 



p. in red 



Chantilly 

1725-89 
s.p. 



p. in red or gold 



Mennecy 
Due de Villeroy 

1735-73 
s.p. 

p. in blue or inc. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN BOURG-LA-REINE, ORLEANS 73 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Bourg-la-Reine 




Orleans 


B R 


1774-89 
s.p. inc. 


I-*-* 


I7S3-70 
Soft paste 


B *. 


? Bourg-la-Reine 


4 A ^ 

4 


1770 
hard paste, 
p. in blue 


s-X 


Sceaux 


/^ 
[i A 
^^ n 
J) ^ 


Inc. 


s. p. inc. 


Sx 


p. in blue 


c 


Bourdon 
c. 1788 
G = ?Gerault 


\J^ 

S.P 


Under patronage 
of the High 
Admiral, Due 
de Penthievre. 
Hence the anchor 
and S. P. = 
(Sceaux 
Penthievre) 


c, 


1790-1811 


/R 
I AA. 

P ' 

r 


Arras 

c. 1782-88 
s. p. p. in blue 

Etiolles 
I7 68 
relieve 1 
s.p. and h.p. 
inc. 


^V 

6.. 


Le Brun 
1808-11 

Bordeaux 


1770 
Verneuille 

Boisette 
1778. h.p. 
p. in blue 


R R 

Tl 


Monnier 
1786 


LIMOG-E5 

J A 


Limoges 
h.p. 1783 
Grellet 
(1783-88) 

? Alluaud 
1788 


Marseilles 
J. G. Robert 
c. 1777 
h.p. 

p. in blue 



74 FRENCH PORCELAIN CAEN, BOULOGNE, PARIS 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Caen 




Paris 


CAEN 


1798-1808. 
h.p. st. in red 


MAP 


h.p. 

Faubourg 








St. Antoine 


Le f ran cot s 
a 
Caen 




X 


1773 
Morel 




Boulogne . 

Haffringue 
1 9th cent, 
h.p. 


$-5 


Rue de la 
Roquette 
Souroux 
1773-84 


H a F 








Fabrique de la 


<$& 


St. Amand- 
les-Eaux 

1 9th cent, 
h.p. and s. p. 


A y 


Courtille 


T 773 
Locr6. 





Montreuil 


qd <K c^ 


with letters 


jl 




jL ^S/^ 


R, X, W, H, etc. 


A 


igth cent. 


/\ 


inc. 


Y 


h.p. 


-X 




A 




-*& 


Locr and 






t~ 7^ 


Russinger 


JtVj^^v 


Choisy-le-Roy 


^^s J \,/ 


1784-94 


/0fror\ 


c. 1780 






^^ 


h. p. pr. 








Paris 


LetR 


>. 








Pouyat and 


9$? 


Le Comte de 


P.R 


Russinger 


J"}' 


Brancas 




c. looo 


^C 


Lauraguais 








c. 1758. 


y 4, 


Rue de Reuilly 


/ (P 
/? K 

/ C ' i 


Faubourg St. 
Lazare 
1769-1810. 


L ^ 


Lassia 
1774-0. 1800 


c/ 


Mark of P. A. 
Hannong 


CH ^ 


Chanou 


SF^ 


1772-75. 


\s 




o*l*t 


Cypher of Charles 






cp 


Philippe Comte 
d'Artois, patron, 
p. in gold 


i P 
ci 


Rue du Petit 
Carousel 





FRENCH PORCELAIN PARIS 



75 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Paris 

h.p. 


Ml 


Paris 

h.p. 


iJC jf 


Cltgnancoiirt, 




^//t' </< H<>ndv. 


^& H$1> 


1775-c. 1790 
founded by 
P. Deruelle under 
the patronage of 
Monsieur, the 


9 

<0k MV 


p. in blue 

Monogram of 
G.A. 


"^\ **{) King's eldest 


L/Tw 




~ eer 


brother, p. in 


^v_X 




<fr .. 


blue, gold, and 






IXL & 


red 


N... 


Rue de Popin- 
court, 1780 








Bought by Nast 




De Moitte who 


Pans 


in 1783 


Moitte 


succeeded Deruelle 






M 




rtaSt a pai/s 


In gold 






NAST 




GKOSSE 


L'isle Saint Denis 






L'ISLE SAINT DENIS 


c. 1780 










DARTE 


M. Dart6 
fl. 1812 


^ 


Fabrique de la 


_ 




W 


Reine, 


M Koy<:7L 




A A 


Rue Thiroux, 
1778 






-*- > 


p. in blue and red : 


jy ^<>- 


Pont-a u x- Choiix 


A. 


founded by 
Leboeuf. 
Cypher of Queen 
Marie Antoinette. 
Managed by Guy 
and Housel after 


Jtft ^ 


1784-0. 1806 
Cypher of Louis 
Philippe, the 
patron, and 
monogram MJ of 
the Director 




the Revolution 


XL 




j /^ 
Rue TKirou 




M 


Monogram of 
J. B. Outrequin 
de Montarcv 
1786 ' 


a Paris. 




B 




MANUFKE 

(/< .I/ *" le Due 


Kue de Bondy, 


Poifer 

/ o 


Rue de Cmssol, 
1789, 


d' Angouleme 


founded in 1780 
by Guerhard and 
Dihl under the 


A * 

PB 


founded by Potter, 
an Englishman 


MANUFKE 

de .l/.l/ 
Guerhard et 


patronage of the 
Due d' Angouleme 
st. in red 


^- t * 

-EB 


p. in blue 


Dihl ,i Paris 









7 6 



FRENCH PORCELAIN PARIS, VINCENNES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




La Seinie 




Paris 


06 c) 


c. 1774-94 


9Y 


h.p. 


(7T\ 


h.p. 


a/t^o 


Feuillet 


jji 


(near Limoges) 


^^ r ^ 


i gth cent. 


d^x 


Paris 


^JL** 






h. P . 






FLEUKY 


St. Denis 


f 




PONTEINX 


late 1 8th cent. 

Ponteinx 
1790-0. 1810 
(Landes) 


i?. 

-f.fi 


Belleville. 
Jacob Petit 
1790 onwards, 
p. in blue 




Paris 






s~* /f} 


h.p. 




Vincennes 


<5/ (s<3 


Gros Caillou. 


cv^^^p 


h. P . 


^\^_ f ^^ 


J. L. Broillet 


v35^^ 


cypher of the 


^/v 


1762-69 


>-^^ 


patron Louis 


C/*tX 


A. Lamarre 


Xix 


Philippe, Due de 




1773- 


^\^ 


Chartres, 1767-86 


F. D. HONORE 


Boul d St. Antoine 






F. M. HONORED 


1785 


k 

I *p ^" 


Hannong 






n v ^C 


? Hannong and 






* *^. ^v 


Lemaire. 


R. F. DAGOTY 






p. in blue 


DAGOTY ET HONORE" 




H ^ 




FABRIQUE DE 
L'IMPERATRICE 


Boul"- Poissoniere 






P. L. DAGOTY 


1780 


4A>^ yf^ 




le Bon halley 
I 


? Paris. In gold 












Vincennes 


Monginot 


20 Boulevard des 
Italiens 


X^^Sf 


s.p. 

(1740-56) 


C. H. PILI.IVUYT 

Manufacture de Fo'dscy 


Pillivuyt & Co. 
1817- 
also at Foe'scy 


X 


? painter's name 
c. 1750. 
p. in red. 
Incised on 


Schoelcher 


Faubourg 
St. Lazare 


Jl 


Vincennes 
porcelain, 1753 




early igth cent. 







FRENCH PORCELAIN VINCENNES, SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DKSCKIPTION. 




Sevres 




Sevres 




inc. marks on 






f 


biscuit porcelain. 
Fernex or 
Falconet 


fr^^^i 


1823 


M C 




Cs^) 


1806 


^ 




^* .' "^ 


initials of 




Brachard 


p cfi* 


repairer 


<6 


father and son 


& 




fkr 


? Bourdus 




Vincennes 






f\ 


(1740-56) 


_, 




^y/ \^ 


soft paste. 


Jc 


Liance 


TXT 


p. in blue 


H 


? Robert le 


9C 




fL XL 


Lorrain 


oo*/^o 









c^o 


1753 


^ ^> 


Le Riche 




Sevres 


/ r\ 






(1756 onwards) 


\^ / V^ 






1756- 


^* 




-^_ 


soft paste made 


9 

J*f*. 


1771 


0o 


exclusively -till 
1769, and as well 
as hard paste till 
c. 1804 ; after 








which hard paste 


T 


? Tristan, 1769 


7T 


almost entirely. 
1777. 






C>^^<i 


p. in blue 


P 


? Perrotin, 1774 


-^^ 




BO 




^^ 




BD 




@ 


1772 
on hard paste 
porcelain from 






^st U^^- 


1769 


A -*t~\ f]* 


Alexandre 


^^0^^"* 






Brachard 







FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



Letters, marks, and numbers indicating the year in which Vincennes 
and Sevres porcelain was decorated. 



A denotes 


the year 1753 


AA denotes the year 1778 


TQ denotes the 


B 


1754 


BB ,, ,, !779 


ix year 1801 


c 


1755 


CC ,, ,, 1780 


X x ,, 1802 


D 


1756 




11 ,, xi ,, 1803 






DD ,, ,, 1781 




E 


1757 




=== ,, xii ,, 1804 


F 


1758 


EE 1782 


-j|- ,, xai ,, 1805 


G 


1759 


FF ,, 1783 


j_, ,, xiv ,, 1806 


H 


, , 1760 


GG ,, 1784 


7 denotes the year 1807 


1 


ii 1761 


HH 1785 


8 ,, ,, 1808 


J 


,i 1762 


II ,, ,, 1786 


9 ,, ,, 1809 


K 


1763 


JJ ,, ,, 1787 


10 ,, ,, 1810 


L 


1764 


KK ,, ,, 1788 


oz ,, ,, 1811 


M 


1765 




dz ,, ,, 1812 






LL ,, 1789 




N 


ii 1766 




tz ,, ,, 1813 


o 


1767 


MM ,, ,, 1790 


qz ,, ,, 1814 


P 


1768 


NN ,, 1791 


qn ,, ,, 1815 


Q 1 - 


1769 


OO ,, ,,' 1792 


sz ,-, ,, 1816 


R 


1770 


PP 2 ,, 1793 


ds ,, ,, 1817 


s 


1771 






T 


1772 










Letters denoting the year 


From 1818-1834 the yeai 


,, 


1773 


fell into disuse during the 


was indicated by the last 


V 


1774 


time of the Revolution, 


two figures of the date, e.g. 


X 


i !775 


and between 1793-1800 


1 8 denotes 1818 






such marks were rare. 


19 ,, 1819 and so 


Y 


1776 


From 1801 the following 


on. After 1833 the date 


2 


1777 


signs were used. 


is given in full. 



1 To recall the comet of 1769 some of the decorators substituted the mark ^f^jj- for the date- 
letter Q. 

2 The insertion of the letters J and JJ in the Sevres Guide (1909 edition), recently shown to 
have been used as date-letters, necessitated the alteration of the above tables to correspond. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



79 



MARK. 




R.F 



de SevreS 




DESCRIPTION. 



Sevres 

1792-1804 

p. in blue and 
lilac 



The First 
Republic 



p. in blue 



1800-2 

p. in gold and 
colours 



1803 to 
May 8th 1804. 
Consular period 



First Empire 

1804-9. 

st. in red 



1810-14. 
pr. in red 



MAKE. 









SVTCS 
3Q. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Sevres 

Louis XVIII. 

1814-24 

the two last 

numbers of the 

year added from 

1814. 
pr. in blue 



Charles X. 

1824-28. 

pr. in blue 



1829-30 



1829-30 



Louis- Philippe 
1830 



8o 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 







DESCRIPTION. 



Sevres 

Louis Philippe 

1831-34 
pr. in blue 



cypher of Louis 
Philippe 



pr. in green 



marks on wares 

destined for the 

Royal Chateaux. 

pr. in red 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





f54 





Sevres 

Second Republic 
1848-52 
pr. in red 



Second Empire 

1852-4. 
pr. in red 



T = tendre, with 

reference to a 

soft paste made 

temporarily 



1854-70 



Third Republic 
1880-89. 
pr. in red 



1890- 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



81 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


<*> 


1871 
in red. 
The cut indicates 




Marks and monograms of 
painters, decorators, and 
gilders at Sevres. 


A 


a spoilt piece 

1900 
in green 


JV 

DA 


ALONCLE, birds, etc. 
1758-81 
ANDRii, Jules, landscapes, 
1843-69 


c/ 1 ? 00 ^ 




sfp. 


ANTEAUME, landscapes, etc. 






Jii 


1754 


A 


1900-2 
in red to indicate 
the gilding 


f 


APOIL, Alexis, figuresubjects 
1845-64 

APOII., Mme. , figures, 1864- 
1894 

ARCHELAIS, decorator, 
1865-1902 




^F\ 


1902-4 


-9S 


ARMAND, birds, etc., 1745- 
1746 


\iL SEVRES . 


in red 


A~A 


ASSELIN, portraits, etc., 
i75-94 


^^ 




T 


AUBEKT ain6, flowers, 1754- 





1848 
on porcelain 
made for Ministers 
pr. in red 


A 
EA 


AUVILLAIN, ground colours 
1877- 

AVISSE, decorator, 1850- 
1884 

BAILI.Y fils, flowers, 1750- 


xJLi^X 




$* 


1800 


r^^i 




% 


BALLANGER, decorator, 
1902 






33 


BARBIN, decorator, 1824-39 









BARDET, flowers, 1751-1800 





1898-1904 
on porcelain 
made for various 
Embassies 


* 


BARRAT, bouquets, etc., 
1780-91 
BAKRE, detached bouquets, 
1780-91 






JS> 


BARRE, flowers, 1846-81 


11 = L ZTAT B )l 




33 


BARRIAT, figures, 1852- 
1883 


_ 









82 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


aa 


BAUDOIN, ornaments, 1750- 


0i 


BOULANGER, flowers, 1754- 
1800 


V 


BECQUET, flowers, etc. , 

TV/tR- 


(& 



BOULANGER fils, subjects, 




L /4 




1770-81 


*T5 


BELET, E. , flowers, etc., 


,-* 




Fi 


1878-1900 


/>y 


BRACHARD, sculptor 


i r3 


BELET, L., decorator, 1879- 


$y 


BRICCY, decorator, 1880- 


Cfl.TT 


BERANGER, figures, 1807- 
1846 


~ <j 

(Jbri, 


BULIDON, bouquets, 1745- 


a 


BERTRAND, bouquets, 1750- 
1800 


MB 


1792 
BUNEL, Mme., flowers, 


^ 




* i**-* 


1778-1817 


fife 


BiEUVlLLE, decorator, 1877- 


v 


BUTEUX pere, flowers, 1756- 


f 




K^ 


1786 


* 


BIENFAIT, gilding, 1756- 


9- 


BUTEUX fils aine", flowers, 


f. 


BINET, bouquets, 1750- 
1800 


Wf 


1773-1822 
BUTEUX fils jeune, sub- 


JC 


BINET, Mme. (ne'e Chanou), 
flowers, 1750-1800 




jects, 1780-94 
BUTEUX, flowers, after 1800 


_ 


BLANCHARD, decorator, 






UJ 


1811 


I5X 


CABAU, flowers, 1848-84 


. A 


BLANCHARD, A., decorator, 






c>wj 


1878-1900 






j& 


BOCQUET, decorator, 1902- 


A 


CAPELLE, borders, 1745- 


<8 


BOITEL, gilding, 1797-1822 


G.2* 


CAPRONNIER, gilding, 1800 


oB 


BONNUIT, decorator, 1858- 
1894 


9 


CARDIN, bouquets, 1749- 


^> 


BOUCHER, flowers, 1754- 


5T 


CARRIER, flowers, 1752- 


t 


BOUCHET, landscapes, etc. , 
1757-93 


C. 


CASTEL, landscapes, etc., 
1750-1800 


$J3. 


BOUCOT, flowers, etc., 
1785-91 


(Lc 


CATTEAU, decorator, 1902- 
1904 


V 


BOUILLAT, flowers, etc., 
i 800- i i 


x- 


CATON, subjects, etc. , 
1753 


,6 


BOULLEMIER, gilding, 1822- 
1841 


X 


CATRICE, flowers, etc., before 
1800 


S45 


BOULLEMIER aine', -gilding, 
1822-41 


I.C 


CI^LOS, decorator, 1865- 
1894 


<&/ 


BOULLEMIER fils, gilding, 
1802-12 


c k 


CHABRY, subjects, etc. , 








1749 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


J2>. 


CHAXOU, Mme. (n6e 
Durosey), flowers, before 
1800 


CD 


DEVEI.I.Y, landscapes, etc., 
1813-48 


c.-p 


CHAPUIS aln^, flowers, etc., 


5> 


DEVICQ, decorator, 1880- 


J 


before, 1800 


3r 




i c 


CHAPUIS fils, bouquets, 


<* * 


DEUTSCH, decorator, 1805- 


o 


before 1800 


jJ f\ 


1817 


1G 

t 


CHAKPEXTIER, decorator, 
after 1800 


D.I. 


DIDIER, decorator, 1819- 
1845 


&c 


CHARRIX, Mme., subjects, 
etc., after 1800 


A 


DIEU, Chinese subjects 
gilding, before 1800 


\v 


CHAVAUX pere, gilding, 






%< 


1752- 


s~ 


DOAT, sculptor, 1878- 


fa 


CHAVAUX fils, gilding, etc. , 
1770-83 


K. 


DODIN, figures, etc., 1754- 
1803 


1 


CHEVALLIER, flowers, 1755 


<7)/? 


DRAUD, Chinese figures and 




CHOISY, de, flowers, etc. , 


JJJ\> 


gilding, before 1800 


la 


1800-1817 





DROUET, decorator, 1879- 


<r 


CHULOT, flowers, etc., 1755 


^ 


DROUET, flowers, 1828 


CM. 


Co.MMELlX, bouquets, be- 
fore 1800 


* 


DUBOIS, flowers, etc., 1756- 


c.c. 


CONSTANT, gilding, 1804- 
1815 


V> 


DUCLUZEAU, Mme. , figures, 


ex. 


CONSTAXTIN, figures, 1823- 
1845 


' 


etc., 1818-48 


* 


CORNAILLE, flowers, 1755- 


c?\ 
^U ^i/ 

a 


DUROSEY, gilding, 1802-27 


4 


1793 


v 


DUSOLI.E, bouquets, before 


<3C. 
. 


COURCY, de, figures, 1866- 
1886 

COUTURIER, gilding, 1783- 


*yl 

DT 

In 


1800 

DUTANDA, bouquets, be- 
fore 1800 
EAUBOXNE, d', decorator, 


A 


COURSAJET, decorator, 
ti886 


tJ 


1904 
ESCALLIEK, Mme., decor- 


A 


DAMMOUSE, figures, etc., 
1862-80 


& 


ator, 1874-88 
EVANS, birds, insects, etc., 


yf"\ 


DAVID, decorator, 1852- 


i^^ 


1752- 


A) 


1882 




FALOT, birds, insects, etc., 


> jj UAVIGXOX. landscapes, 




before 1800 


* 


1814 
DKLAFOSSE, figures, i SOS- 


HF 


FARAGUET. Mine., figures, 
1856-70 


Jj.$. 1.815 


^ 


FICQUEXET, flowers, 1864- 


,TV Q DESPERAIS, decorator, 1794- y 


1881 


1822 


FOXTAIXE, miniatures, etc., 


i-jp DERICHSWKII.KR, (J. , de- ' 


1752 


LjUt corator, 1858-84 





FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


5" 


FONTAINE, flowers, 1827- 
1857 


t 


GOMERY, flowers, 1756 


9 


FONTELLIAU, gilding, 1753- 


F.9 


GOUPIL, figures, 1863-79 


Y 


FOUR^, flowers, before 
1800 


$** 


GRMONT, bouquets, 1770- 
1781 


f 


FOURNERIE, decorator, 
1903 


X 


GRISON, gilding, 1749 


A.F 


FOURNIER, decorator, 1878- 


ax 


GUILLEMAIN, decorator, 
after 1800 


LD 
CA/j 


FRAGONARD, figures, etc., 
1847-69 


aa, 


HALLION, E. , landscapes, 
1884 





FRITSCH, figures, etc., 1763- 
1765 


^ 


HALLION, Fr. , gilder, 1866- 


* 


FROMENT, figures 

FUMEZ, bouquets, 1777- 
1801 


A 

1vc. 


HENRION, bouquets, before 
1784 

HRICOURT, bouquets be- 
fore 1800 


g.. 


GANEAU fils, gilding, after 
1800 


V. 


HILKEN, figures, etc., be- 
fore 1800 


+p 


GAUTHIER, landscapes, 
etc., 1787-91 


H 


HOURY, flowers, 1747-55 


$ 


GliBLEUX, decorator, 1883- 


fi..^. 


HuARD, decorator, 1811- 
1846 


j.a 


GLY, decorator, 1851- 
1888 


t>*)* 


HUMBERT, figures, 1862- 
1870 


a 


GENEST, figures, 1752 


ty 


HUNY, flowers, 1791-99 


t 


GENIN, flowers, etc., 1756 





JARDEL, decorator, 1886- 


f 


GEORGET, figures, etc. , 
1802-23 


^*^s^ 


JOYAU, bouquets, before 
1800 


v 


GERARD, subjects, before 
1800 
GERARD, Mme. (ne'e Vau- 
trin), flowers, before 1800 


^g 

eE 


JUBIN, gilding, before 1800 

JULIENNE, renaissance or- 
naments, after 1800 


4 


GIRARD, Chinese figures, 
before 1800 


JL 


LAMBERT, flowers, 1864-96 


SoUl 


GOBERT, figures, 1852-91 


c r** 

*s. 


LANGLAC, landscapes, 
1813-44 


4. 


GOBLED, decorator, 1902- 
GODIN, gilding, 1808-28 


PL 


LA ROCHE, flowers, before 
1800 
LASSERRE, decorator, 1896- 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



1 MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


a 


LATACHE, gilding, after 
1800 


W 


MAUGENDRE, sculptor, 
1881-86 




LE BEL aine, figures, etc. , 


f.jj 


MAUSSiON.Mme. de, figures 


*L^jf 


before 1800 


iMfcflb 


1860-70 


jsft 


LE BEL jeune, bouquets, 


J 


M^RAULT aln6, decorator, 
1754-91 


0^*\/%/<ft 


1780-93 






/3 


LE BEL, landscapes, 1804- 


9 


MERAULT jeune, bouquets, 
1786-89 




1844 






^ 


LEANDRE, subjects, left in 


"M 


MERIGOT, decorator, 1848- 
1884 


L 


LECAT, ground colours, 


W\ 


MEYER, A., figures, 1863- 
1871 




1872- 






fC IT 


LECOT, Chinese subjects, 


X 


MICAUD, flowers, 1759 


UUftM 


before 1800 






v 


LEDOUX, landscapes, etc., 
1758 


JLC 


MiCAUD, gilding, 1792- 
1812 


/Lr 


LEGER, decorator, 1902- 


/5WM 


MICHEL, bouquets, before 
1800 


/V> f/V 

*<(<; JLA\ 


LE GUAY, gilding, 1748 


M 


MILET, O. , decorator, 1862- 
1877 


f P 


LE GUAY, figures, etc., 


LM 


MIMARD, decorator, 1884- 


'jt* 


1778-81 






J-. 


LE GAY, decorator, 1866- 
1884 


M 


MOIRON, bouquets, 1790- 
1791 


^ 


LEGUAY, miniatures, etc., 


^ 


MOUGENOT, flowers, 1754 


V 


1772-1817 


^ 




OQ 


LEGRAND, gilding, after 


<fkt\3 


MOREAU, gilding, 1809-15 


^.J 


1800 




MORIN, naval and military 


EL. 


LEROY, gilding, 1864-88 


C/Jf\a 


subjects, 1754 


.f-L 


LEVE pere, flowers, etc. 
1754 


JW^ 


MORIN, gilding, 1888- 


r 


LEVE, F. , flowers, etc., be- 


AM 


MORIOT, figures, 1830-48 




fore 1800 






AL 


LIGNE, decorator, 1883 


A 


MUTEL, landscapes, 1754 








NIQUET, bouquets, left in 


GL 


LUCAS, decorator, 1878 


"7 


1792 




MAQUERET, Mnie. (n<?e 






JI3 


Bouillat), flowers, before 
1800 


s^^ 


NOEL, flowers, etc., 1755 
NOUAILHIER, Mnie. (nee 


x*' 


MARTINET, flowers, 1861 
1878 


J2> 


Durosey), flowers, before 
1800 


AG 


MASSY, flowers, 1779-1806 


O.CJ) 


OUINT. Ch. , decorator, 
1879-82 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


J"> 


OUINT, E. , coloured 
grounds, 1888-93 


* 


QUENNOY, decorato'r, 1902 


o 


OUINT, Em. , coloured 





RAUX, bouquets, before 


^^ 


grounds, 1877-89 


Ofl 


1800 


f 


PAILLET, figures, 1882-88 


'R 


RGNIER, F. ', figures, 1820- 
1866 


y 


PARPETTE, flowers, etc. , 

1755 


JR 


REGXIER, H., figures, 1825- 
1870 


IIR 


PARPETTE, Mme. , flowers, 
etc. , 1794 


31 


Riijoux, gilding, 1862-90 


f a 


PARPETTi.Mme. ,L. .flowers, 


&Eaeto.*^ 


r> T- 


ct.J>, 


1789-1825 


to oo 


KENARD, h,. , decorator, 
after 1800 


^ 


PAJOU, sculptor, 1750 


-ftCA 


RENARD, H. , decorator, 
1881 


P 


PELUCHE, decorator, 1 8 SO- 


^M^ 


RICHARD, Em. , flowers, 


uJT 




*-* *\ 


1869-1900 


P.T. 


PETIT, flowers, 1756 


ER 


RICHARD, E. , flowers, 1838- 
' 1872 


O 


PFEIFFER, bouquets, before 


$c 


RICHARD, F. , decorator, 


f 


1800 


V* 


1848-78 


P.H. 


PHILIPPINE aine', subjects 
1780-91 


jA*/k 


RICHARD, S. , decorator, 
1832 


J!/& 


PHILIPPINE, flowers, 1787- 
1791 


1R 


RICHARD, L. , decorator, 
1902 


J> 


PIERRE aind, flowers, be- 


^u. 


RICHARD, P., gilding, 1849- 


J 


fore 1800 




1881 


fit 


PIERRE jeune, bouquets, be- 
fore 1800 


R. 


RIOCREUX, I., landscapes, 
1824-49 


f 


PIHAN, decorator, 1888- 


A* 


RIOCREUX, D. , flowers, 
1807-72 


P.t. 


PITHOU aine\ subjects, 
before 1800 


PR 


ROBERT, P. , landscapes, 
1806-43 


JP.4. 


PITHOU jeune, figures, 
etc. , before 1 800 


CR 


ROBERT, Mme. , flowers, 
after 1800 


** 




^7\ 


ROBERT, J. F. , landscapes, 


P 


PLINE, gilding, 1831 


A> 


1806-12 


5? 


PORCHON, gilding 


^oc 


ROCHER, figures, etc., 1758 


_ 


POUILLOT, bouquets, be- 


x^ 


ROSSET, landscapes, 1753 


C^ 


fore 1778 








POUPART, landscapes, 


(J\. 


ROUSSEL, bouquets, before 


f^. 


1815-45 




1 800 


HP. 


PREVOST, gilding, 1754 


m 


ROUSSEL, figures, 1842-72 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 





SANDOZ, decorator, 1890- 


7* 


TKOYON, decorator, 1802- 


o 




o. 


1817 


as. 


SCHILT, L. .flowers, 1822-55 


J~{J 


ULRICH, decorator, 1889- 
1904 


*f*h. 


SCHADRE, birds, etc. , before 
1800 


V) 


VAUDE, gilding, etc., 1753 


jg. 


SIEFFERT, figures, 1883-88 


W 


VAVASSEUR, arabesques, 


CO 


SIMARD, decorator, 1883- 


^^ 


VIEILLARD, decorator, 


' 




- 


1752-90 


^ 


SlNSSON, flowers, 1780-95 


*?c 


VIGNOL, decorator, 1883- 


S.Sp 


SINSSON, flowers, 1820-25 


2000 


VINCENT, gilding, 1752-91 


% 


Sioux ain^, bouquets, 1752- 


W 


WALTER, flowers, 1832-82 


* 


1792 









Sioux jeune, flowers, 1752- 
1792 


W 


WEYDINGER, gilding, c. 
1814 


$i 


SOLON, M., figures, etc., 
1862-71 


* 


XROWET, flowers, etc., 1750 


C/-.W 


SWEBACH, landscapes, 1806- 
1814 


f . 


YVERNEL, landscapes, etc., 
I 75 





TABARY, birds, 1754 




Decorators who signed 








in full 


^ 


TAILLANDIER, bouquets, 
1753-90 




ANDRE, J., landscapes, 
1843-1869 








BALDISSERONI, figures, 





TANDART, flowers, 1755 




1865-1879 








BARRIAT, decorator, 1852- 


^ v 


TARDI, bouquets, 1757-95 




1883 








BRANGER, J., figures, 1807- 




THEODORE, gilding, tefore 




1846 





1800 




Bois, Th. du. , sea subjects, 


J 


TIII';VENET pere, flowers, 
etc., 1745 




1842-1848 
BOQUET, landscapes, 1804- 








1814 


Ji- 


THEVENET fils, decorator, 




BOQUET (Mile. Virginie), 


ff 


r 75 2 




landscapes, 1835-1863 


n */ 


TRACER, J. , flowers, etc. 




BuCQ(Le), landscapes, 1843 


eJ.W. 


1841-73 




BULOT, flowers, 1862-1883 


IT 


TRACER, H., decorator, 




BRUNEI,, figures, 1863-1883 
CABAU, C. , flowers, 1848- 




1887- 




1884 




TRAGER, L., decorator, 




Ci.OS, J., decorator, 1865- 


- 


1888- 




1894 


^ 


TRISTAN, decorator, 1879- 




COOL (Mme.de), figures, 1870 
COURCY (de), figures, 1866- 




1882 




1884 



FRENCH PORCELAIN SEVRES 



DEGAULT, figures, 1808-1817 
DEMARNE, subjects, 1808-1814 
DEMARNE (Mile. Caroline), landscapes, 

1822-1825 

DENOIS (Mile. Jenny), portraits, 1820 
DESBOIS, sculptor, 1886-1887 
DEVELLY, C. , landscapes, 1813-1848 
DIDIER, decorator, 1819-1845 
DUCLUZEAU (Mme. Adelaide), portraits, 

1809-1848 

DUFRESNE, Henry, figures, 1862 
FONTAINE, flowers, etc., 1850 
FRAGONARD, Th. , subjects, 1847-1869 
FROMENT DELORMEL, Eug. , figures, 

1853-1884 

GALLOIS (Mme.), figures, 1871 
GARNERAY, L. , sea subjects, 1838-1842 
GLY, J., figures, 1851-1888 
GEORGET, figures, 1803-1806 
GODD, enamels and reliefs, 1861-1863 
HAMON, figures, 1849-1854 
JACCOBER, flowers and fruit, 1818-1848 
JADELOT (Mme. S. ), subjects, 1864-1871 
JAQUOTOT (Mme. Victoire), portraits, 

1801-1842 

LABBE", flowers, 1847-1853 
LAMARRE, landscapes 
LAMBERT, landscapes, 1858 
LASSERRE, decorator, 1896- 
LAURENT (Mme. Pauline), figures, etc., 

1850 



LANGLAC^, landscapes, 1807-1844 
LANGLOIS (Polycles), landscapes, 1847- 

1872 

LEBEL, portraits, etc., 1804-1844 
LEGUAY, subjects, figures, 1778-1840 
LESSORRE, figures, 1834 
LYNYBYE, landscapes, 1841-1842 
MERIGOT, F., flowers, etc., 1848-1888 
MEYER-HEINE, figures, 1862-1868 
MORIOT, figures, portraits, 1830-1848 
PARENT, L. -B. , figures, 1816 
PHILIP, enamels, 1847-1877 
PHILIPPINE, still life, 1785-1840 
POUPART, A., landscapes, 1815-1845 
R&GNIER, landscapes, 1836-1870 
RICHARD, E. , decorator, 1858 
ROBERT, landscapes, 1806-1843 
RODIN, sculptor, 1881-1883 
ROUSSEL (P.-M.), figures, 1848-1872 
SCHILT (L.-P. ), flowers, 1822-1855 
SCHILT (Abel), figures, 1847-1880 
SOLON (Mile. L.), figures, 1862-1871 
SWEBACH, landscapes, etc., 1806-1814 
TRACER, J. , birds, etc., 1841-1873 
TREVERRET (de), figures, 1819 
TRISTAN, figures, 1863 
TURGAN (Mme. Constance), portraits, 

1834 

VAN Os, flowers and fruits, 1811-1814 
VAN MARCK, subjects, 1825-1862 
VERDIER, J., designer, vers, 1890 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 

THE manufactory of a tin-enamelled earthenware decorated in 
blue, manganese and green, or in blue and lustre pigment, or in 
lustre alone, flourished in Spain from an early date, and was most 
probably introduced by the Moors. Manises and Valencia were 
centres of the industry, which was at its best in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. In the seventeenth century several Italian 
potters settled in Spain, and introduced the manufacture of their, 
then decadent, maiolica there. Later, when French faience was 
at its height, some French potters removed to Spain, so that 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries tin -enamelled 
wares were made at Alcora, Talavera, and elsewhere, some of 
which recall the later styles of Italian maiolica, while others 
resemble French faience. Wall-tiles with elaborate geometrical 
patterns of Moorish origin, known as azulejos, were largely made 
in Spain from early times, and formed a special industry. 

Porcelain was manufactured in due course in the eighteenth 
century, the most important factory being that of Buen Retiro, 
near Madrid, founded in 1760 by the help of workmen and 
moulds removed from Capo-di-Monte, Naples. The ware was 
at first a soft paste, but after 1780 a harder magnesian porcelain 
was made. 

Clever copies of Palissy ware and the mottled earthenwares of 
Staffordshire are made by Mafra, at Caldas, in Portugal. 



9 o SPAIN VALENCIA, MANISES, ALCORA, SEVILLE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 








Alcora 





Hispano- 
Moresque 
pottery 
1 5th cent. 
Valencia 


A At 
Co* 


Pottery and 
porcelain 
1 8th cent. 


/5>\ 




CRS PC 




^s/ 




ALCORA ESPANA 

Soliva 




^v 




FABRICA REAL DE 




X^7\ 




ALCORA ANO IJ^S 




/ / >' 


1 5th cent. 






1^ 




CHRIS -OVALEROS 




jfi& 


c. 1480 


MOX fo 


Painters' marks 


V V 




Fcv Vi> 




M 


? Manises 
1610 
(and a hand 
in a circle) 


J CLUcvrt* f 


Talavera 

T^th and 
1 8th cent. 


p 


Puente de 
Arzobispo 


S 


Seville 

i gth cent. 


4Lv / 

nvx0o ict) o 


1 6th and 
i^ih cent. 


1 ^^ 

^\^^ 






Alcora 

1 8th cent. 


De la Real Fabrica 
de Azulejos de Valencia 

Soc de J itana Zamore 


1836 
? Valencia, 1786 















Real Fabrica de 
D Maria Salvador 


Disdier 

1808 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL SEVILLE, PORTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



IJKSCKII'TION. 




VEGA, 




M.P. 

MIRAGAIA 

F,*, 



Seville 

Early igth cent. 



Valladolid 
? 1 8th cent. 



Sargadelos 

i gth cent. 



Segovia 
i gth cent. 



Portugal 

Porto 

Pottery of 
Massarellos 
1738-1833 



Miragala 
c- 1755 



Bato 

1 8th cent. 




rv 



78* 



CALPAb 



O 




Viana de 
Castello 

1 8th cent. 



Coimbra 



Caldas 

c. 1870 
Imitations of 
Palissy ware 



Lisbon 

c. 1833 



Buen Retire 
(Madrid) 

1760-1804. 

Soft paste till 

about 1780, and 

afterwards a hard 

hybrid porcelain 

p. in blue 
and imp. 



9 2 SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, PORCELAIN BUEN RETIRO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



*.* 



7 



JOSEPH GRICC 



o- 




R F B PORCELANA 
S SMC 




Buen Retiro 
Porcelain 



c. 1763 



c. 1803 



1804-8 



S K 



LIS60A 



VA 



J 



Buen Retiro 
1804-8 



A 




Portugal 

Lisbon 

J. Ferreira 
igth cent. 



Lisbon 



Vista Alegre 

1790- 



Malta 

c. 1844 
Stoneware 



THE BRITISH ISLES 

VARIOUS attempts to make porcelain in the neighbourhood of 
London culminated in factories at Bow and Chelsea, both of which 
were active as early as 1745. The ware was a soft-paste 
porcelain, the secret of which had been learnt, no doubt, from 
French potters. Shortly after 1750 other factories sprung up at 
Derby, Worcester, Lowestoft, Longton Hall, Bristol, and Liverpool. 
All the early English porcelains were varieties of soft-paste, some 
distinguished by the admixture of bone-ash, and others by that of 
steatite. The only true hard-paste porcelain was made of Cornish 
materials at Plymouth from 1768-70 and at Bristol from 1770-81. 
The English porcelains continued to vary under fresh experiments 
till the end of the eighteenth century, when a more permanent 
mixture was arrived at by Josiah Spode in Staffordshire. This 
was the modern English porcelain, made chiefly of China clay and 
China stone from Cornwall, and bone-ash ; it combines the 
strength of hard-paste with some of the soft mellowness of the old 
soft-paste porcelain. The decoration passed through regular 
phases, first copying the Chinese white wares, then the blue and 
white, then the enamelled Japanese porcelain exported from Imari ; 
next came imitations of the Meissen and Sevres styles, from the 
rococo to the pseudo-classical ; and at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the Japan patterns were revived in a very free 
rendering of the more elaborate " Imari " designs. After this the 
potters fell back on imitations of the earlier styles until new life 
was infused into their work at the end of the last century. 

Marked specimens of English earthenware are practically 
unknown before the seventeenth century. It was then that delft 
or tin-enamelled ware in the Dutch fashion began to be made, 
chiefly at Lambeth : this industry spread over the country in the 
eighteenth century, and considerable factories sprung up at Bristol 

93 



94 POTTERY MARKS 

and Liverpool. In Staffordshire and at Wrotham in Kent, 
in Derbyshire and other places the more English method of 
decorating earthenware with coloured slips was largely practised, 
and many of the pieces bear the names or initials of potters as 
well as those of the destined possessors of the pots. At the 
end of the seventeenth century salt-glazed stoneware was made by 
Dwight of Fulham, and at Nottingham, and a fine red stoneware 
after the Chinese buccaro was made by Dwight and by Elers in 
Staffordshire. Early in the eighteenth century the Staffordshire 
potters became celebrated for a fine, white, salt-glazed stoneware 
of remarkable thinness and sharpness which is called "salt-glaze" 
par excellence. This was followed by a lead-glazed earthenware 
of creamy-yellow tone perfected by Wedgwood in his Queen's 
ware about 1760. It was decorated, first with splashes and 
mcttlings of green and brown or brownish-purples, and afterwards 
by painting in enamel colours. Towards the end of the century 
numerous earthenwares and stonewares were invented or perfected 
by Josiah Wedgwood and his contemporaries, e.g. jasper wares, 
black basalt or Egyptian black, cane-coloured stoneware, pearl- 
ware, etc. ; and in the early nineteenth century a host of iron-stone 
chinas, improved stone chinas, etc., mostly hard white earthen- 
wares, were invented as cheap substitutes for porcelain. Marks 
on English pottery are mostly impressed and are often difficult to 
decipher because the glaze has filled up the hollows of the stamp. 



BRITISH PORCELAIN BOW, BRISTOL, CAUGHLEY 95 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




? John Bacon en 




? Bow or Chelsea 


J2? 


Bow porcelain 


<&? 


c. 1750 


- 


inc. 


\ 


p. in blue 


ffi-. 


Belleek 




Bristol 




Co. Fermanagh 
Ireland 
1857- ' 


V 
A $ 


1770-81 
h.p. 
The Meissen 
cross swords 


<$Kpii^&c& 


Pr. 


i 


borrowed by 


(2 






Champion. 


$ 


Bow 

1745-76 
s.p. 
inc. 


W n^f 
x x 


p. in blue. 
The numbers 
1-17 probably 
indicate different 
painters. 
Bone and 
Stephens are 






/. 1? 


said to have 


^ 1 






been i and 2 


T& 


p. in red 


fy ^ 




,f,t 






Plymouth and 






^^*/\ 


Bristol marks 


f 1< 


p. in blue 


^^, 


combined 
A leaf painted 







^sZtjj**c:p^ 


over the word 


!> 




1l8jf^$f 


' Bristoll ' in 


c*T ** 






raised letters 






"T* 


Tebo, modeller 




? Monogram of 




(see above) 




Th. Frye. 




inc. 


r 


This and the 
trident-shaped 
mark above also 


X ^ 






occur on Wor- 


s\, / 






cester Porcelain 






"To 


Tebo 
modeller 


Brisfoll 


In low reliefs. 
Mark of an early 
factory, c. 1750 


& 


inc. 


C 


Caughley 
1772-1814 
s.p. p. in blue 








These works 


_ 






were absorbed 


00 


? Bow 




by Coal port. 


7^> 




'Jy^ 


S = Salopian. 


5e~~7 




^J 


Disguised numeral 


t^r 






resembling an 








Oriental mark 



BRITISH PORCELAIN COALPORT, CHELSEA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


t* 


Caughley 


i? /? P r xt> /"/ 


Chelsea 


CL? 1 j 




\J ' ( *- (~d<stts~y 


c. 1745-84 s.p. 


rtX/ ^^ 


1772-1814 


r^> 


Period T. 


i 


s.p. 


^ 


c. 1745-50 


$. # 


p. in blue 




triangle mark inc. 
Period II. 








1750-c. 1753. 
Anchor in relief 


C 







on an oval pad 


* 







Same mark out- 
lined in red 


S 

X 


? Caughley 
Caughley and 


*& 


Anchor in blue 


SALOPIAN 


Coalport 




Period III. 




1780 onwards 


j f- 


c. 1753-8. 


__ xo 


CBD = 


^*^ + 


Anchor in red 


cjp *j) 


Colebrookdale 


t 









p^r 


Period IV. 






T~j~ 


1759-70. 


^r 




sLo O 


Anchor in gold 


v)^. /? f R n 

0/Cite L D U 




4* 










Roubiliac, 


*/) /c?^^ 


Monogram of 


IR 


sculptor, inc. 


f2r/C% 


C. S. with letters 


Km 




r**"^ 


C = Caughley, 






k 


S = Swansea, 


, /*^V_- 




JOHN ROSE & CO. 
COLEBROOK DALE 
1850 


N = Nantgarw, 
factories absorbed 
by Coalport ; 
used since c. 1860 


fp 


Early mark copy- 
ing a Chinese seal 

p. in red 


ENGLAND 




A 


Period V. 


Cflji 


Modern mark 


* 


1770-84 


S3? 


pr. 


*r 


Chelsea- Derby 


COALPORT 






period, during 


A.D. 175O 






which Duesbury 






aP 


of Derby owned 


^V" 


Imitation of 




the works 


A^ 


Sevres- 


Tiv "^ 


p. in gold and 


ou? 


on blue printed 


2^) ^^i^ : 


colours 


-f- 


ware 


5> 




Goidlurrt 




^ 





BRITISH PORCELAIN DERBY 



97 



MARK. 



M 



If 



I)i:.SCRII'TIO\. 



Donovan of Pool- 

beg St., Dublin, 

decorated Minton 

and other 

porcelains 

c. 1800 

p. in red 



Derby 

s.p. 

p. blue 
1770-84 

Crown Derby 
mark painted in 

colours 

c. 1782 onwards. 

Early marks in 

blue, puce, or 

gold, later in red 

Incised on figures 
and vases, pattern 

numbers and 

workmen's mark 

added 



MARK. 



Monogram of 

Duesbury and 

Kean, 1795-7 

p. in colour 







DESCKII'TIOX. 



Derby 

pr. in red 

Bloor period 

1811-44 



pr. in red 



I'.r. in red 



on imitations 
of Sevres 



Derby porcelain 

with Meissen 

mark 

Rare mark in blue 

on porcelain 

printed by Hold- 

ship at Derby 

c. 1764 

Copy of Chinese 
tripod mark 

Cocker, figure 
maker at Derby 
early igth cent, 
and in London 
c. 1840- inc. 

King Street 

c. 1850 

after the closing 

of the old factory 

pr. 



9 8 



BRITISH PORCELAIN DERBY, LOWESTOFT 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Derby 




Lowestoft 


:~' *'T} 


King St. 




copies of 




c. 1870 




Worcester marks. 


VtSSr 


Initials of 


w 




S X"H 


Stevenson and 
S. Hancock 




Liverpool 


&/\ 


pr. in red 


/. Sadler, Liverpool 


Sadler and Green 
printers, 1756-99 


c~~J 






(see p. 103) 


.'r(V"V- 


Mark of the Royal 


Sadler, Lip 1 




ALT / 


Crown Derby 




. 


OooO 


Factory in 
Osmaston Rd. 


Sadler, Lip 1 , enam 1 




i \y i 


1876- 






c^&9 


pr. 


Evans, sculpsit 


c. 1770 






Gilbody, maker 




g rv , 


Isleworth 




Herculaneum 


4-Q 


Shore & Goulding 




works 


*^ 


I76o-c. 1800 


HERCULANEUM 


c. 1800-41 


Skore CatC* 


s.p. 
p. in colour 


NANT-GARW 


(see p. 103) 
Nantgarw 






c.w. 


China works. 




Lowestoft 




Co. Glamorgan 


_/t/^JxM. 


1757-1802 


G 


1811-14 and 


*-/>* 


s.p. 




1817-19 


a&Tttrei jf*- 


Allen, painter 




s.p. mark imp. 




late 1 8th cent. 










A/O 


Pinxton 







c/f 


(Derbyshire) 








s.p. 1796-1812. 








p. in colour 


^^^ 


Numbers 






^. IV 


(7 to 25) and 
workmen's mark 


p 




VI 


on Lowestoft 
porcelain, 
p. in blue 


^ \6 


? initial of 
Billingsley 


*s 5 




fjz/i^ sleij 


Billingsley 






JJl ivnj/ y 


decorated various 


at 




fti, ek/nsfiel,cL 
" 


wares at Mansfield 


x 






in 1801 






<2\ 


Plymouth 


ay w> 


Imitation 


* 


h.p. 1768-70. 


. 


Chinese marks. 


x^ 


works removed to 


$d " 


p. blue 


7l 


Bristol in 1770 






f* 


and converted 


A y^, 




*T 


into the Bristol 


x* dp 






China manufactory 


9 






in 1773. 








p. in blue and 








colours 



BRITISH PORCELAIN ROCKINGHAM 



99 




MARK. 



J / 




DESCRIPTION. 



Rockingham 

Porcelain 
made by 
Brameld 
1820-42 
pr. 



in a wreath 

Staffordshire 

Longton Hall 

Littler & Co. 

1752-58 s.p. 

p. in blue 



New Hall 

c. 1781-1825 

s.p. 



pr. in red 



Stoke-upon- 

Trent 

Spode 
1797-1833 

p. in colours 
and gold 

in a wreath 



pr. 

Copeland was 

Spode's 

London 

agent and 

afterwards 

partner 



MARK. 







M. B. 

MINTOX & BOYLE 
M. & CO. 
MINTON 




DAVENPORT 
LONGPORT 



iMiie End, July 1787 

TURNER 

Turner's Patent 



DESCRIPTION. 




Staffordshire 

Stoke-upon- Trent 
W. Copeland 
bought Spode's 

business in 1833 

Garrett a partner 

1835-47 
pr. 



Minton 

1796 onwards 

p. in colour 

The ermine mark 

after 1851. 

Minton and Boyle 
1836-42 imp. 



since 1861 
imp. 

Modern mark 
pr. 



Longport 
Davenport 
1794-1887 
pr. in red 



P. Warburton 

New Hall 
patent for print- 
ing in gold, 1810 

W. & J. Turner 

of Lane End 
with or without 
Prince of Wales' 
feathers. Patent 
for improvements 
in porcelain, 1809 



ioo BRITISH PORCELAIN STAFFORDSHIRE, SWANSEA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MILES 


Staffordshire 

M. Mason at 

Lane Delph 
c. 1804 pr. 
imp. 


Decorated by 

SWANSEA 

H. Morris 


Swansea 

Morris continued 
to paint porcelain 
of various kinds 
at Swansea after 
1824 


VJ^ 


MASON 


M. MASON 

Shorlbose 4*. C 


Hanley 

c. 1820 
p. in blue 


Pardoe, Bristol 

C c c 


1809-20 
(cf. p. 104) 

Worcester 

1751 onwards 
s.p. 
crescent used 


RILEY 

182,3 


Burslem 

1814-26 
imp. 


9 C* 


alone from 

c- i75 I - J 793 
p. and pr. in blue 


WEDGWOOD 

W. T. 

ENGLISH PORCELAIN 

]. R. & Co. 


Stencilled in red 
or blue, 1805-15 
(cf. p. 113) 

Occurs on 
porcelain made 
by Hilditch 
(see p. in) 
and others 

Ridgway 
1814-55 
pr. 


|4<O -^y 


on painted and 
blue printed wares 

c. 1751-1783. 
Imitations of 
Oriental marks, 
p. in blue 


M 


tf- 17 
Q 


$\ 


Early igth cent. 


V"< 




%+ydlr 


Swansea 


j v*T$ 




/* ^ea 


1814-24 
s.p. 
p. in red 


-j: 


Copy of the 
Chinese jade 
mark 


SWANSEA 


1815-18 


y tf 


Copies of Meissen, 
Chelsea, Sevres, 


>< 


imp. 


$ 


and Tournay 
marks 


SWANSEA 

a- 




& X 





BRITISH PORCELAIN WORCESTER 



101 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



UKSCKIPTIOX. 



r r 



T 



H 



B.F.B 



FBB 




Worcester 

s.p. 
Workmen's marks 



Similar marks 
occur on Lowestoft 

and 

Bow porcelains, 
p. in blue 




$ J^ncock fat hGrcrstrr 




Flight period 

I783-93- 
The mark 

FLIGHTS 

incised occurs 

rarely. 

B incised for Barr 
(1793-1803). 

Flight & Barr 
1793-1807 

Barr, Flight, and 
Barr, 1807-13 



Flight, Barr, and 
Barr, 1813-40 



1851-62. 

This mark under 
a crown 1862 
onwards, pr. 

Marks of R. 

Hancock 

(1756-74), 

engraver. 

The anchor for 

? R. Holdship 

On printed ware 

Painter of animals. 
( Monogram of JD 
for John Donald- 
son, also occurs 
on vases, c. 1768) 



Chamberlain t 



CHAMBERLAIN 




Worcester 

Chamberlain's 

factory, 1789- 

1840 

With other 
marks giving 
the address of 

the London 
house 



pr. 




Grainger's 

factory 
1801-1888 



pr. 



1896-1905 
pr. 



ENGLAND. 




pr. 



102 BRITISH POTTERY NEWCASTLE, SUNDERLAND 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Yarmouth 




North Hylton 


Absolon Yat- <a 


a decorator 


j^^ 4/ 


1762 moved 


f ffl Ml 


late 1 8th cent. 


* 


to Newcastle 


\JU-iP >O 






in 1817 


A, 6 - <2< 


Hull 


' 




<h ^CL <L2 


1826-41 


& 


Stockton-on- 
Tees 


^Sj ^ 7*y^* ^^*** 


pr. 


St* 




ffull. 




ftfl 


W. Smith & Co. 
1820- 


- (^ 






f 


pr. 




Hylton 


\ 




DAWSON & CO. 


1800- 






O 


imp. 








Ferrybridge 






FERRYBRIDGE. 


1792-early 








1 9th cent. 






F. WEDGWOOD. 












W. S. & Co. 




WEDGWOOD & CO. 


1796- 


QUEENS WARE 








STOCKTON 




Tomlinson 6 Co. 


1792-96 and 








1801-34 


W. S. & Co. 


also S. & W. 


FELL, NEWCASTLE 


Newcastle 

1817- 


WEDGEWOOD 










Newcastle 


p 




SEWELLS & DONKIN 


St. Antony's. 


4 / 






c. 1780- 


^^ x > ~~^\ 


Middlesboro 


DIXON, AUSTIN & CO. 


Sunderlanci 


/w ^C^ oOi 


1831-44 




1800- 


/o 5i 




SUNDERLAND 




1 g Kill 5] 


imp. 






^br^ 




I. W. & Co. 




w ^- ^ 


,, 


PHILLIPS & CO. 




W 






Bockingham 


J. PHILLIPS 


1817- 


ROCKINGHAM 


1765-1843 


HYLTON POTTERY 


See above 




(cf. p. 99) 




Southwick 


BRAMELD 


(the same in a 
wreath ) 


SCOTT Brothers & Co. 


1789- 










MORTLOCK'S CADOGAN 


Early igth cent. 


Aloore & Co. 
Stoneware 
Southwick 


Wear Pottery 
1803- 


DON POTTERY 


Swinton 

1790 onwards 



BRITISH POTTERY CASTLEFORD, LEEDS 103 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Swinton 




Liverpool 


& 


Don Pottery 
1790 onwards 

Castleford 


P/7 


Pennington 
1 8th cent, 
p. in blue 


D. D. & Co. 

CASTLEFORD 


late 1 8th cent, 
onwards. 
David 
Dunderdale & Co. 
(1803-21) 


/. Sadler, Liverp 1 
Sadler, sculp* 


Sadler and 
Green, printers 
and potters 
1756-99. 
Sadler retired 


^RU lv^ 


interlaced Ds 


Green, Liverpl. 


about 1774 


jftg * 


? David 
Dunderdale 


J. Johnson 


Engraver 
c. 1790 






HERCULANEUM 


Herculaneum 


HARTLEY, GREENS 
& CO. 
LEEDS * POTTERY 


Leeds 

c. 1760-1878 
imp. 


POTTERY 

gfllfl 


pottery 
1794-1841 

pr. 


^ X0* 

A? yO^ 




^&* 




S*' %, 




3T 


pr. 


L. P. 


Leeds Pottery 


J /CAMBRID&fl / 


pattern mark 
on Liverpool ware 




R. Brittou 


v^jyoy 


pr. 


R. B. & S. 


and Sons 


VT*- 






1863-78 






* 


L for Leeds 
(in a quatrefoil 
within a circle) 


BOURNE'S 
POTTERIES 


Helper 1800-34. 
Denby 

1812 onwards 


Nottn, 1703 

A fade at Nottingham 
ye 17 th day of August 


Nottingham 
stoneware 


J. BOURNE & SON 

BOURNE'S POTTERIES 
DENBY & CODNOR PARK 


Codnor Park 
Pottery taken 
by Bourne in 
1833 and closed 
1861 


A.D. 1771 




DERBYSHIRE 













io 4 BRITISH POTTERY DERBY, BRISTOL, SWANSEA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Chesterfield 




Bristol 


J. OLDFIELD & CO. 




_^ 1 


said to be the 




Derby 


AO^*^ 


monogram of 






l\ ^**Sr m ~^r 


Richard Frank 


S. M. 1726 


slip ware. 
? Samuel Meir 


/Acjiv-' 


at Brislington 
in lustre 






/ ^^ wx 


late 1 8th cent. 


RS 


Richard Meir 










/. Eaves, Bristol 


on earthenware 
early igth cent. 


John 3Iei>; 1708 












J. Doe, 1797 


painter 


SS 
By Stephen. Shaw 


incised 


W. F., !8 4 8 


W. Fifield, 
painter 


1725 






(b. 1777, d. 1857) 


I H 


Joseph Heath 
c. 1770 


POUNTNEY & ALLIES 


1816-35 




cream ware 










POWELL, BRISTOL 


Mid. igth cent. 


Pot Works in Derby 


pr. 








c. 1770 










Marthar Wilkinson 


painter : 


Radford Sculpsit 




Bristol Pottery, 1808 


mark incised 




Lowesby 


Pardoe, fecit, Bristol 


1809-20 


J?U 


c. 1835 




Wincanton 


*^m!lLL^^ 


imp. 






gjjjg, *A 




WINCANTO 


delft ware 


^lVE$v 




Nathaniel Ircson, 1748 


c. 1730-50 




Bristol 




Plymouth 


.^ *C~ delft ware 


P. P. COY. L. 


Pottery Co. 




1 8th cent. 


Stone, China 


c. 1850 


<y 


? Flower 




Donyat 






T. M. 1790 


(Somerset) 


/ "O C ' + 
)J(jl [Jott/nn reel I 


p. in blue 




graffiato ware 








Welsh 


.^^^^ 




J. G. Mkr. 1669 


graffiato ware 


/BristolN 


cream ware 






I Pottery ) 


1786-0. 1840 


James Daves 
Pencoyd 


Pencoyd 

Glamorganshire 


- " 






1822 


4 


? Bristol 




Swansea 






Cambrian Pottery 


earthenware 








1769-1870 



BRITISH POTTERY SWANSEA, RYE, LAMBETH 105 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Swansea 




Chailey 


CAMBRIAN 


Cambrian 
Works 


RICHARD NORMAN 


(near Ryei 
1842 




1769-1870. 






OPAQUE PORCELAIN 


invented c. 1790 


I. L. 1638 


Wrotham 

(Kent) 








slip ware 


SWANSEA 






probably initials 






G. R. 1651 


of the potters 


DILLWYN & CO. 


1801-17 
and 1824-50 


I. W. 1656 




Swansea 












H. I. 1669 


? Jull 


DILLWYN'S 




X. H. 1678 




ETRUSCAN WAKE 


1845-6 










I. K. 1697 




BKV1NGTON & CO. 






SWANSEA 


1817-24 


IE WE 1699 








WROTHAM 










Mortlake 


<J$fSfes 




Kishere, Mortlake 


early igth cent. 


ITcUBA*? 


pr. 




Isleworth 


JMUfcWYN*.C9 




S&G 


Shore and 








Golding 








1760-1830 




Glamorgan 






(ttr*&5S& 


Works 




Fulham 


yis&ir 


Baker, Bevans 


Fulham Pottery 


early igth cent. 


+Sr& 


and Irwin 




mark 




1816-39 










T. Wetherill 


Lambeth 


OPAQUE CHINA 


pr. 


Modeler No. i 


stoneware 


B& B 




Cleaver St., Lambeth, 


1 9th cent. 


4 




London 






Rye 






Rye (Sussex) Potterv 


c. 1790 onwards 
Cadborough 


d&XJO^* 






Works 


0/^Stt H kert\vV 








(\lc * \ V 


c. 1837 










fL^S^* 


Bellevue Works 


vV 1 i.amlretf\ J J'S 


imp. 


* 


1869 onwards 


^^ 





106 BRITISH POTTERY LAMBETH, IRELAND 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Lambeth 




Staffordshire 


Doulton & Watts 
Lambeth Pottery 


1820-58 
stoneware 


CARTWRIGHT 


c. 1650 






JOSEPH GLASS 


1703 


J. & M. P. B. & Co. 


Glasgow 

Bell and Co. 
1842- 


Thomas Heath, 1677 


? Derby 






Job Heath, 1702 


" 


SCOTT 

PB 
6 


Portobello 

late 1 8th cent, 
onwards 


Joshua Heath, 1771 
Richard Meir 


c. 1708 






John Meir, 1708 






Dublin 


Richard Mare, 1696 






cream ware 






. 


c. 1770 


Richard Meer, 1680 


. 






w. RICH, 1702 




2Ju&n, 




TH. SANS, 1650 


? Wrotham 


WOODNORTH & CO. 


? Staffordshire 
1818 


R. SHAW, 1692 








JOHN SIMPSON, 1735 




Engraved by James 
Brindley 


Staffordshire 


RALPH SIMPSON 


c. 1700 


TkUaSt*, z M 


Belfast 


WILLIAM SIMPSON 


1685 


H*R 


on delft ware 


THOMAS TOFT, 167! 




1?*-<t- 




RALPH TOFT, 1676 






Fremington 






John Pidler his hand 


(N. Devon) 
Fishley's factory 
c. 1860 


JAMES TOFT, 1705 
CHARLES TOFT 


Modern 


John Hoyle 


Bideford 

c. 1860 


RALPH TURNOR, 1680 
WILLIAM TALOR 








GEORGE TAYLOR, 1690 




John Phillip Hoyle 


1852 
graffiato and 
slip wares 


JOHN TAYLOR, 1700 
JOHN WRIGHT, 1707 
JOHN WEDGWOOD 
1691 


All in this column 
are makers of 
slip-ware 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



107 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





W. T. & Co. 



SPODE 

C 




Staffordshire 

On red stoneware 
made by Elers at 
Brad well (1690- 
1710) and after- 
wards by many 
1 8th cent, potters 
imp. 



On a black teapot 

supposed to have 

been made by 

Twyford 
early i8th cent. 



? Twyford's mark 
inc. 




Saltglaze 

c- 1745 

marks on 

saltglaze are 

very rare 

? William Taylor 
& Co. c. 1760 

Stoke-upon- 
Trent 

1770-1833 



pr. 
cf. p. 99 




R. WOOD 
36 

Ra Wood 
Burslem 

ENOCH WOOD 
ENOCH WOOD & CO. 

WOOD & CALDWELL 
BURSLEM 




BUR5LEM 



LAKIN 

UAKIN & POOLE 
R. POOLE 

Drab Porcelain 

J. LOCKETT 

W. S. KENNEDY 

J. MACINTYRE 

MOSELEY 



Stoke-upon- 
Trent 

1793 onwards 
Minton and Co. 



Vlinton and Boyle 
See p. 99 

c. 1824 

Burslem 

Ralph Wood 

b. 1716, d. 1772 

and his son of 

same name 
b. 1748, d. 1797. 
b. i759-d. 1840 

1790-1818 



1770-1795 

1795- 

? made by 
Lakin 

c. 1786-1829 
c. 1838 " 

c. 1811-1857 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



MARK. 



OPERATIVE UNION 
POTTERY 

MACHIN & POTTS 

Burslem, Sta/ordshire 
P. B. & Co. . 




I. DALE. 
BURSLEM 



T. & R. B. 



ROGERS 



STONE CHINA 

JAMES EDWARDS & CO. 

DALE HALL 

J. E. & S. 



Edge & Grocott 

ANTHONY SHAW 
BURSLEM 

STEEL 
BURSLEM 



DESCRIPTION. 



Burslem 

igth cent. 



1834 



With crown 

and wreath. 

Finder, Bourne 

and Co. 

Middle igth cent. 



c. 1800 



Boote 
1850- 



Late 1 8th cent.- 



1842 onwards 



1806-39 

? Burslem 
igth cent. 



1850- 



1766-1824 



RILEY'S SEMI-CHINA 

ALCOCK AND CO. 
HILL POTTERY 

BURSLEM 
S. A. & Co. 



J. VOYEZ 



Voyez , 
Sculp* 17*9 



YOYEX & 

HALES, Fecit 





NKAI.E & WILSON 

Neale & Co. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Burslem 

Early igth cent. 

1826 at Cobridge. 
c. 1850 at 
Burslem 



Hanley and 

Shelton 
Astbury, jun. 
(c. 1760-80) 

Voyez, sculptor 

and potter, also 

worked for 

Wedgwood 

and Palmer 

c. 1780 



1760-78 
imp. 



1778-80 



imp. 
c. 177 



1780-87 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



109 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Hanley 




Hanley 


WILSON 




07^2^-^fcj 








l~ f 


Meigh, Old Hall 


dl 


R. Wilson till 


J Jv L 


Hanley 


fi&p 


1802 


@/L_ -"ran 


1770-1860 


c 


D. Wilson & D. 


.^j*r **~* 




WI LSON 


Wilson and Sons 
till 1820 


SDlAv 




John Daniel, 1775 












STONE 




.S". Daniel, Stoke 


Engraver 


C H I N -^ 








OPAQUE PORCELAIN 


,, 


Wolfe & Hamilton 








Stoke 


c. 1790 


ENAMEL PORCELAIN 


.. 


. Mayer 


1770-1813 


SALT 


c. 1820 








W. Baddeley of 


E. Mayer r Son 


1813-1830 


EASTWOOD 


Eastwood : 
1 8th and early 








19th cent. 


Joseph Mayer & Co. 


Early igth cent. 


T. SNEYD 
HANLEY 


Early igth cent. 


T. J. & J. MAYER 


c. 1830 onwards 










MANN & CO. 








HANLEY 


1857-8 


MAYER BROS. 













KEELING, TOKT & CO. 


Early igth cent. 


Mayer & Elliot 


" 






Published by 

C. R. BOOTH & CO. 


1839 


JOHN RICKHUSS AND 
CHARLES TOFT 


c. 1854 


Hanley, Staffordshire 








F T H 


Birch 


S. HOLLINS 


1774-1816 


Jj 1 J> 


late 1 8th cent. 






BIRCH 




T. & J. HOLLINS 


Successors of 
S. Hollins 


SHORTHOSE & HEATH 


c. 1800 


WARBURTON 


c. 1780-1826 


SHORTHOSE & CO. 


c. 1821 


HACKWOOD 


1842-56 






C. & H. , Late 


Cookson and 


HEATH 




HACKWOOD 


. Harding 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



HARDING 

FLETCHER & CO. 
SHELTON 

W. STEVENSON 
HANLEY 

R. M. W. & Co. 
Ridgway 

Ridgway & Sons 




Hanley 

Middle igth cent. 

1786-1810 
block printers 



1828 

Ridgway, Mosley, 
Wear, and Co. 

1794 onwards 
1802-14 



I"'- 



G. BAGULEY, HANLEY 

MASON'S CAMBRIAN 
ARGIL 



FENTON 
STONE WORKS 

C. J. M. & Co. 



afterwards 
Brown, Westhead, j 
Moore, and Co. 

1855- 
pr. 



1810 

Lane Delph 
late 1 8th cent. 



C. J. Mason 

and Co. 

1825-51. 

The words 

Granite China" 

and a view of the 

works also occur 

with this mark. 




Jf"**. 






ENOCH BOOTH 
1757 



A. & E. KEELING 



Hanley 

Mason's iron- 
stone china was 
patented in 1813 
pr. 



Ashworths 

bought up 

Mason's works 

and rights, 1859 



Tunstall 

Early igth cent. 

c. 1763 
i gth cent. 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Tunstall 




Lane End 


ADAMS 


1787 onwards 


1C. Greatbatch 








Lane Delf 


1778 


W. ADAMS & SON 








W. A. & S. 




Radford 


Engraver 
(cf. p. 104) 








A feather in a 


\V. A. & Co. 






crown and word 








CAMBHIA 






C. HEATHCOTE & CO. 


on a ribbon 


MARSHALL & CO. 


Early igth cent. 




accompany 


6 






this mark 








early igth cent. 






MYATT 


c. 1800 


fS? 


Hilditch and Son 






$% 


early igth cent. 
pot. and pore. 


T. Harley, Lane End 


c. 1800 






HARLEV 




A. STEVENSON 








WARRANTED 


i gth cent. 






STAFFORDSHIRE 












Aynsley, Lane End 


c. 1790 


HALL 


Early igth cent. 








Fenton 


Lane End 




T. GREEX 


c. 1835 










B. Plant, Lane End 


Late 1 8th cent. 


S. GREENWOOD 


1770-80 






PRATT 


c. 1800 onwards 


BAILEY & BATKIN 


c. 1815 


F. and R. PRATT & CO. 








FENTON 


Lane End 


M. & N. 264 
May r & Newb* 


Early igth cent. 


TURNER 


1762-1803 








Prince of Wales' 






W. & J. TURNER 


feathers also 
added to this 


CYPLES 


c. 1786 


1 IRNER & CO. 


mark 










CHEATHAM & 




J. MIST, 82 FLEET ST., 
LONDON- 


London agent 


WOOLLEY 


Early igth cent. 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



MARK. 



DKSCRIHTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Thomas Waoley 
G. 'T?. 1811 



"* 




I STONE CHINA 



CLEWS 



PHILLIPS, LONGPORT 




Lane End 



Longport 

1794-1887 
imp. 



pr. 



pr. 

cf. p. 99 



1819-29 



1 760- 1 gth 
cent. 

Cobridge 

1 8th cent. 



1802-1840 
imp. 



JONES & VVALLEY 

J. & R. G. 
Elkin, Knight & Co. 



W 




Wedgwood 

WEDGWOOD 
WEDGWOOD 

Wedgwood 
W & B 



WEDGWOOD 
& BENTLEY 



c-- Bentley 



Cobridge 

1835-60 

John and Robert 
Godwin 
c. 1843 

Lane Delph 
i gth cent. 

Etruria 

and Burslem. 

Wedgwood, 

on red stoneware 

c. 1760 

imp. 



On cream ware 

c. 1760 

(The letters 

irregular) 

In varying sizes 

from 1760 

onwards 



1768-80 



In varying sizes 



J 



BRITISH POTTERY STAFFORDSHIRE 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 





Etruria 




Staffordshire 


\vi.i HJWOOD & SONS 


Rare mark 
c. 1790 


<fc 


(miscellaneous) 
Registration 






/~^>L 


mark used 






mRD ob 


on Minton, 


JOSIAH WEDGWOOD 




XI> yr 


Copeland, and 


Feb. z, 1805 


Very rare 


\c7 


other wares from 






V 


c. 1850 








Tunstall 






F MEIR 






Various commas, 




c. 1842 


o 


dashes, numbers 
and single letters 
occur on the 


Crystal Ware 


i gth cent. 
? Davenport 


^ 


earlier wares 








Three letters 


fM2E**rr &^\ 




O S X 


combined at 


v^rATPo~^ B ^*^w) 


i gth cent. 




random occur 


jT < &*^_^_OD5n^y' 






after 1868 


\gj* |i s^3jj ) 




WEDGWOOD 








ETRURIA 

I Vedgwood 


In varying sizes 
c. 1840 


BATTY & CO. 


i gth cent. 


Btruria 










Stencilled on 


.Wohr and Smith 






porcelain 


Patentees 


1 ' 


WEDGWOOD 


1805-15 








and again after 
1879 


). CLEMENTSON 

Ironstone, Tillenberg 


With a pho3nix. 
Hanley, c. 1845 


r^&&1t}&~ 


Painter, 1859-75 






v- J 




hunt 


? 


/> 




DUCKOZ & MII.LIDGE 


c. 1850 


* ^S^ 






In a garter 




From 1891. 




enclosing the 




England added 


ROYAL TERRACOTTA 


Royal crown 


- 


on porcelain 


PORCELAIN 






exported 








to United States 


BOTT & CO. 


Karlv i gth ct-nt. 




pr. 






WEDGWOOD 






Holland and 


ENGLAND 


The Wedgwood 
marks are nearly 


REGINA 
II. & G. 


Green, I.ongton 
after 1853 




all stamped. 








A single letter 
indicates the year 


Sampson Ijnvnds 


? Tunstall 




on modern wares 


1786 





BRITISH POTTERY AMERICA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Staffordshire 


U.S.A. 


America 


/. Hollingshead 


c. 1750 


Mr. Clarkson Crolius 
1798 


Potter's Hill 
New York 




Fenton 






BARKER 


1 8th cent, 
also on Newcastle 
ware i gth cent. ) 


PAUL CUSHMAN 


c. 1809 
Albany, N.Y. 


BAYLON 

5. Smith 


late 1 8th cent, 
c. 1770 


NORTON & FENTON 
BENNINGTON V T 


(in a circle) 
Vermont 
1839- 




? Boot or Booth 


LYMAN FENTON & CO. 


c. 1848 


B 


on lustre ware 








c. 1815 






RAINFORTH & CO. 


1 9th cent. 


ROOKVTOOD POTTERY 
CIN. O. 


RookwoodPottery, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
established, 1877 


PROUDMAN 


" 


R.P.C.O.M.L.N. 


RookwoodPottery, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Maria Longworth 
Nicholas 






* 


" 






E. & W. BENNETT 
CANTON AVENUE 


c. 1846 






BALTIMORE, M. D. 








STONE CHINA 

K.T. & K. 


(and a buffalo) 
Knowles, Taylor, 
and Co. , East 
Liverpool, Ohio, 
1870- 






HARKER, TAYLOR, & CO. 


Harker Pottery 
Co. , East Liver- 






H.P. Co. 


pool, 1840- 



AMERICA 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Philadelphia 




Philadelphia 


P 


Bonnin & Morris 
Southwark 
c. 1770 


William Ellis Tucker 
China Manufacturer 
Philadelphia 


h.p. porcelain 




p. in blue : 


I 2 






cream ware 


Tucker & Hulme 




i / 


#<:& Co. , Pa. 


1828 




V-^VrucZA 


Joseph Smith 






'T*/ 


pottery 
1767-1800 


Jo* Hemphill 


1832-36 
workman's marks 


3i3l 


Henry Rondebush 
1811-16 


yr w 


inc. 
Walker 




Montgomery Co. 
Pa. 


m 


Morgan 


Hg, R*fa# 


.- 


7 


Frederick 






H 


Hand 


cw 


Samuel Troxel 


V 


Vivian 


^ ^3% 


1823-33- 


f* A 




s 


graffiato pottery 


C/3 


C. J. Boulter 


< 


Georg Hiibener 
graffiato pottery 


Smith, Fife, & Co. 
Manufacturers, Phil a 


Pore. c. 1830 




1785-98 










RALPH B. BEECH 




IT 


I. Taney 
Bucks Co. 
c. 1794 


PATENTED 
JUNE 3, 1851 
KENSINGTON, PA. 


Kensington, Pa. 






AM. POTTERY MANUF G 


Jersey City, N.J. 


(LryflS 




CO. 


(on a flag) pr. 


C Wy 


Johan Drey 


JERSEY CITY 


1833- 


/^ 




D. & J. 


In a circle 






Henderson, Jersey City 


c. 1829 


AH 


Initials of potters 
in Pennsylvania 




American 
Porcelain Manu- 






A. P. M. & Co. 


facturing, Co. 








Gloucester, N.J. 


H.T.IS.T 


Montgomery Co. 




1854-57 




J. Scholl, of 






H 


Tyler's Port 
c. 1830 
a fuchsia imp. 


MERCER POTTERY 
TRENTON, N.J. 


Trenton, N.J. 
semi-porcelain 
1868- 



u6 



MODERN BRITISH 



MARK. 



BISHOPS WALTHAM 



CROSSLEY 
COMMONDALE 



K. W. MARTIN 

Fill ham 





VIII 





DESCRIPTION. 



Hants 

on terra cotta 
1862-66 



Yorks 

on terra cotta 
1880-83 



On artistic 
stoneware 



Louis Marc Solon 

on porcelain 

decorated in 

pate-srir-ptite : at 

Sevres, and after 

1870 at Minton's, 

Stoke-itpon- Trent 



Marks on Lancas- 
trian lustred and 
flambe" pottery 

made by 

Pilkington and Co. 

at Clifton 

Junction 

Manchester. 

VI II =1908 



Mark of 
G. M. Forsyth 



Mark of 
W. S. Mycock 



MARK. 












DESCRIPTION. 



Marks of 
decorators of 
Lancastrian 

potter}-. 

Lewis F. Daj 

(designer) 



John Chambers 



Richard Joyce 



Walter Crane 
(designer) 



C. E. Cundall 



Dorothy Dacre 



Jessie Jones 



Gwladys Rodgcrs 



Annie Burton 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



117 



MAKK. 





BRETBY 



DESCRIPTION. 



Bernard Moore. 
Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 
on Flamb 
glazed ware 



Ridgwav. 
Shelton, Staffs. 



Aller Vale and 
\\'atcombe 

Art Potteries, 
S. Devon. 
Mark also 

AI.LKR VALE 



Royal Essex 

Pottery, Castle 

Hedinghani 

Essex 



W. Howson 

Taylor. 

Ruskin Pottery, 
Birmingham 



Torquay 



Tooth and Co. 
Bretby Pottery 

near 
Burton-on-Trent 



MAKK. 



DKSCRll'TIOX. 






C.M. 




Wileman and Co. 
Foley Potteries 
Longton, Staffs. 



E. J. D. Bodley. 
Burslem, Staffs. 



Brownfields 

Potter}' 
Cobridge, Staffs. 



T. Dimmock 

and Co. 
Hanley, Staffs. 



Old Hall 

Porcelain Works 

Hanley, Staffs. 



n8 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 







W. Adams 

and Co. 

Tunstall 

Staffs. 




T. B. & S. 




H. Alcock and Co. 
Cobridge 

Staffs. 



John Aynsley and 

Sons 
Longton, Staffs. 



W. Ault. 
Swadlincote 

near 
Burton-on-Trent 



O. H. BRAN NAM. 



. FOLEY CHINA. 




T. and R. Boote. 
Burslem 

Staffs. 



Booths, Ltd. 
Tunstall 

Staffs. 



Brannam. 

Barnstaple 

Devon 



Foley China 

Works 
Fen ton, Staffs. 



Burgess and Leigh, 

Burslem 

Staffs. 



S it L, 



Bishop andStonier. 
Hanley, Staffs. 




Burslem 

Pottery Co. 

Staffs. 



T. C. Brown- 

Westhead, 
Moore and Co. 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



119 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 










ENGLAND 



Cochran and 
Fleming. 
Glasgow 



Doulton and Co. 
Lambeth 



Doulton and Co. , 

Ltd., 
Lambeth. 






ROYAL 

DOULTON 

FLAMBE 



DOULTON'S 




Doulton and Co. 

Ltd., 
Burslem. 



Elton, Sunflower 

Pottery 
Clevedon, Som. 



Charles Ford. 
Burslem, Staffs. 



Th. Forester 

and Sons. 
Longton, Staffs. 



I 20 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 








Furnivals, Ltd. 
Cohridge, Staffs. 



W. H. Goss. 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 



W. H. Grindley 
and Co. 
Tunstall 



G. Jones and Sons. 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 



Locke and Co. 
Worcester 





Lovatt and Lovatt. 
near Nottingham 



J. Macintyre and 

Co., Burslem, 

Staffs. 



A. Meakin, Ltd. 
Tunstall, Staffs. 



J. and G. Meakin, 
Hanley, Staffs. 



BRITISH PORCELAIN ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MAKK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


A ^t 

AI/ ' 


Bow 

A in blue 
anchor, etc. in red. 


-f 55 

Vl/ oL/ 


Derby-Chelsea 
See p. 96 






IDUESBURV ll 


Derby 


T 


imp. ? Tebo 


1 LONDON J 


late 1 8th cent. 




f 






Bristol 


^ 


in blue on 
figures 


H 


P- 95 

Lowestoft 
p. 98 


Cy 


inc. 




on transfer print 






T'Jicoo/ied -/iectf" 


? Liverpool 
P- 98 


/<! 


in red with 






^ 


crescent in blue 


A^/o 


Pinzton 








in red 


f* 


Coalport 


A 




K 








/C7 


on -the same 






Saloon 


piece 


P 


imp. 


*^J 


See p. 96 


C* 


in puce 


CB.DALE 












Rockingham 
Brameld 


Rockingham 


C Jja-ie 




Manufacturers to the 


pr. in pink 






King 


P- 99 


^, PV-.I /g 


?Tebo 


^1 




1 






inc. on a figure 


S + 




B ram&ld. 


inc. 






zoo 




c 


? Chelsea 






J 


inc. 


X 




^ 






New Hall 


x- 




Hcuf jio-LL 


1799 


^7*\* 


? Chelsea or Derbj 


SkeLton.. 


p. in colour 


r-^D 


inc. 






3) 


inc. on a ? Chelsea 
jug 


BOYLE 


Stoke-upon-Trent 
c. 1830 
imp. 



I20A BRITISH PORCELAIN AND POTTERY ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


9 


? Church Gresley 
c. 1800 
inc. 


** 


Worcester 

1783-93 
(See p. 101) 


jtri<durr> 


Worcester 


/^oc/3 


Flight & Barr 




on blue printed 


i y? 


inc. 




ware, c. 1770 






*5-< 


Workmen's 
marks. Wall 
period (1751-83) 
p. in blue 


E. Doe 
Worcester 

Grainger Wood & Co. 
Worcester Warranted 


on Chamberlain's 
Worcester 
Early igth cent. 

Grainger's 
Worcester 


S*Z LJJ 




228 


(p. 101) 
Hylton 


+0-> 

-M JD M 
T I 


p. in black and blue 
p. and inc. 


/. Dawson dr" Co. , 
Low Ford 

J &P 


Early igth cent, 
pr. 

Newcastle 

Jackson & 
Patterson 
Early igth cent. 


T T @ 


PTebo 
inc. 


WALLACE & CO. 
J. W. & CO. 


late i gth cent. 


^51 6 


p. in blue 


PATTERSON & CO. 





v s 

J 5 


p. in pink 


/. Warburton 
N. on Tyne 


1740-1817 


J757 




Tyne Pottery 




5T 


John Donaldson's 
signature 


HARWOOD 
STOCKTON 


Stockton-on-Tees 
late i gth cent. 


R.H fecit 


R. Hancock 


V\J S Jun c^ 




~R'J{--f 


printed ware 


-^*"^ v *' 


William Smith 


Jf\Oj& SCU-th 


- 


/ ^-^L'^ "^7 ** 


See p. 102 



BRITISH POTTERY ADDITIONAL 



I 20B 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


SEWELL 


imp. 


W.S&S 


imp. on red 




See p. 102 


Sfr ri 


ware. 






<X \J 

s & c 


Isleworth 


Dixon Co. 




G G 


Early igth cent. 








(See p. 105). 


Dixon, Phillips &> Co. 




Smith Lambeth 


Early igth cent. 








stoneware 




Kilnhurst, near 






TWIGG 


Rotherham 
1839 onwards 


W. GREEN VAUXHALL 
London 


Early igth cent. 


SOWTER & C 
MEXBRO' 


late 1 8th cent. 


"\v J" 


painter on saltglaze 
? Willem Horlogius 






<(0fun/ 


Inc. on saltglaze 


Swillington Bridge 




c/^^ 




Pottery 




(T J'f 




J. Wildblood 




V 




Yates 

LEEDS 


on early igth cent, 
porcelain 


U/ 


p. on saltglaze 
? Wedgwood 








Stoke upon- 






Wolfe 


Trent 


Nottingham Oct. the 


inc. 


W 


c. 1840 


22 I7O2 










? Herculaneum 


Spade's 
Imperial 


See p. 107 


H.P. 2 1808 


imp. 




Burslem 






E. WOOD sculpt. 

E. HEWITT Pinxt. 


on a figure 


JOSEPH THOMPSON 


The Hartshorne 






WOODEN BOX 


Potteries 






POTTERY 
DERBYSHIRE 


1818 onwards 


E. WOOD & SONS 


See p. 107 






WOOD 




John Milsom Maker 


imp. on brown 






124 Temple Street 


stoneware 






Bristol 1830 




/^ y" 


? J. Lockett 






f. 0- 


(p. 107). 






o 


inc. 


BRADLEY & C 
COALPORT 


c. 1800 


STUBBS. 


Dale Hall 
1790-1829 








imp. 



I 2OC 



BRITISH POTTERY ADDITIONAL 



MARK. DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


BATHWELL 


Burslem 


J & W 


Hanley 


GOODFELLOW 


c. 1800-1819 


KIDGWAY 






imp. 








succeeded the 






E. CHALLINOR 


above 


W. R IDG WAY & CO 


See p. no 




in 1819 






sf i t C 1 




CAULDON 


f ( 


/CKf/tA- LsCUIZ 


on red ware 






i wX 


? Burslem 






/ J GO 




CAULDON PLACE 








ENGLAND 


" 




Hailes & Adams 






H. & A 


late 1 8th cent. 


GLASS, HANLKY 


c. 1830 


( * 




IV. Clowes 


Port Hill, c. 1810 


^ ca 


Wilson 






G- "w 


See p. 109 






cl); 




B. ADAMS 


Early igth cent. 


"W 




BOURNE NIXON & C 








1830 


Tunstall 


HAMILTON 


1818 






STOKE 
T. MAYER LONGPORT 


with printed 
cartouche and 
crest (a horse) 


<$**$ 

^^ 


John Yates 
Fenton, c. 1830 




c. 1830 






COURTHOPE 


Early igth cent. 


CYPLES & BARKER 


Longton, c. 1800 








Barlow (successor 


JOHNSON 


i gth cent. 


B 


of the above) 


HANLEY 








Stone-China 


pr. in blue 


Martin, Shaw & Cope 


in a cartouche, 


William Heath 


Early igth cent. 


Improved 
China 


Longton 
Early igth cent. 




imp. 






T. H. & CO 


? T. Heath & Co. 


cJ\ 


Fenton. 








C. !8 45 






ft f^ 


imp. 


INDIAN TREE 


J. Meigh & Sons 


oaxoft prone 




J. M. & CO. 


c. 1861 






TOFT & MAY 


Hanlev, c. 1830 


T. HEATH BURSLEM 


printer early 
igth cent. 






E. & G. Phillips 


in a wreath 


HAWLEY 


Foley, 1842 


LONGPORT 


Early igth cent. 



BRITISH POTTERY ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


UESCRITTIUN. 


R. HALL 
I. HALL & SONS 


Sytch pottery 
Burslem 

Early igth cent, 
imp. 


MAKE 


c. 1830 
imp. 


Turaeri.Rt.KC 


Lane End 


G TAYLOR 


Han ley 
1786-1802 


( 


(See p. 99) 






* 


pr. in blue 


WHITENING 
1. 


igth cent. 


R.S. 


Cobridge 
imp. 


B. W. & Co 


Bates, Walker 
&Co. 


STEVENSON 


(see p. 112) 


G1LUEA & WALKER 


Late igth cent. 


R STEVI.NSON 
& WILLIAMS 


pr. in blue 




? Wincanton 


Published by 

E. JONES 
COBRIDGE 


imp. 


VV^ 


delft 
c. 1720 
See p. 104 


September i, 1838 












q 


Ireson 


/ETRUSCAN) 


Elkin, Knight 
and Bridgwood 
at Foley 
c. 1820-50 





(Wincanton) p. 


KNIfrHT ELKIW *CO 
IRONSTONE CHINA 


pr. in blue 






C 








J. CLEMENTSON 

Bread Street 

SHELTON 
NOVEMBER 5th 1839 


pr. 






/. Theophiltis 
Stringfellaw 
made this puzzle 
jug 1816 


Inscribed 








THE pottery of the Near East, while embracing many kinds of 
earthenware, is usually characterised by a friable body of sandy 
texture : this is occasionally coated with tin-enamel, oftener with 
white " slip," though it is sometimes decorated directly on the 
body. Painting in blue and brown, turquoise and green, or in 
lustre pigments was practised from very early times, and the ware, 
except when tin-enamelled, has a translucent glaze of remarkable 
depth and quality. It appears probable that Egypt was the 
nursery of the art after the fall of the Roman Empire and in the 
early Middle Ages, and that its practice spread thence into Syria, 
Persia, and Asia Minor, where brilliant and attractive types of 
pottery were made from the eleventh to the seventeenth century. 
The rubbish mounds which cover the site of Fostat (Old Cairo) 
have proved rich mines of fragments and waste pieces of pottery 
evidently thrown away from kilns many of which bear marks ; 
some of the marks show that Persian and Syrian potters, or their 
descendants, were working in Egypt alongside the native Egyptians. 
Indeed the most common name Ghaiby signifies " stranger," and 
is qualified on one piece with the further description El Chanty, 
" the Syrian." The dates of these marked fragments range from 
the ninth to the seventeenth century. 

Lustre pigments were used with great skill in Persia from the 
thirteenth to the seventeenth century, and perhaps also in Egypt 
at an earlier date. Under Turkish rule, from the sixteenth 
century onwards, a particularly beautiful pottery of the same type 
was made in Asia Minor and at Damascus. This ware, formerly 
known as Rhodian and Damascus ware, is noted for its brilliant 
colours and its decorative schemes of semi-naturalistic flowers 
pinks, hyacinths, marigolds, roses, fritillaries, etc. A large propor- 

121 K 



122 POTTERY MARKS 

tion of this ware, exclusive of that made at- Damascus, is dis- 
tinguished by the use of a fine red pigment, always in palpable 
relief. This pigment, generally known as " Rhodian red," was 
obtained from Armenian bole. 

Marked examples of Persian, Syrian and Turkish wares are 
uncommon. 

A translucent pottery, which is generally known as Persian 
porcelain, was made at a very early date, and then again about 
1600 and even as late as 1800. This ware frequently bears 
delicately incised patterns or is ornamented with pierced patterns 
the openings of which are filled with glaze. It was formerly 
known in England as " Gombroon Ware." 

The marks found on Persian pottery occur most frequently on 
the wares of the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, particularly 
on the pieces in which Chinese influence is apparent in the 
decoration. Marks also occur on Anatolian wares of Minor 
importance. 



PERSIAN, SYRIAN, AND EGYPTIAN FAIENCE 123 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






. 



* * 



Ghai'by 
(= stranger) 
1 6th cent, 
one of his 
pieces also 
bears the 

words 
El Chamy, 

meaning 
the Syrian 



Son of 
Gha'iby 



Aagami 
( Persian) 
1 6th cent. 



fji 
JtflJ/ 



Ghazal 

1 6th cent. 

Syrian style 





El Hermizi 

( = from Hormuz 

in Persia) 

1 6th cent. 




El Masry. 

Egyptian 

1 3th or 1 4th cent. 



El Chamy, Syrian 




El Taurizi ( = from 
Tauris) i6thcent. 



Mark on 
i4th cent, ware 



Aioub 

I3th or i4th cent. 
Egyptian 



Bism 
i6th and 17111 

cent. 
Syrian style 



i2 4 PERSIAN, SYRIAN, AND EGYPTIAN FAIENCE 



MARK. 






DESCRIPTION. 




El Chaer 
1 5th cent. 
Egyptian 



El Siouaz 

1 6th cent. 

Syrian 



El Istaz, 1 3th 

or 1 4th cent. 

Persian 



El Maallem 
1 5th or 1 6th 

cent. 
Egyptian 



El Mouslem 

on ? gth cent. 

lustred ware 

Egyptian 



Nakkach 
1 5th or 1 6th 

cent. 
Syrian style 



El Barrany 
1 3th cent. 
Egyptian 



El Fakid 
1 6th cent. 
Syrian style 




PERSIAN, TURKISH, AND ANATOLIAN FAIENCE 125 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




w 


Persian 
blue and white 
faience, i6th or 
1 7th cent., imita- 
tion of a Chinese 
seal 


ij^l/k 
( ^\J^ ^ 








to Ahmed. 
Made by 
Muhammed AH 
A.H. 1232 " 
( = A.D. 1817) 


H 


i 




Persian 








" porcelain " 
p. in lustre 
r6th or 1 7th cent. 


C^/^^lf /{c 


= ? " Made by 
Muhammed 
Harbaty ' ' 


*] L? 

j* 


Signature of 
Hatim 

= ' ' The decorator 
of it the poor 
Zart A.H. 1025 " 
( = A.D. 1616) on 
blue and white 


tf ' 


Blue and white 
Persian, 
igth cent. 




faience 


J Jdt)v 


' 


J (/A/* 


= ' ' The work of 
Mahmud Mi'mar 
ofYezd" 

1 7th Persian 
resembling a 
Chinese mark 


I 


Turkish faience 
1 6th cent. 


fiVA 


Y 


1 


L -j 


v| ^f4p'; 


1 9th cent. 
Persian 


_. -^. 


Anatolian 


- 


L 1 * 




S - Sfj\ ^^ 


faience 


P\- 


= ' ' Made by 
Muhammed AH 


c/c^^y 


1 7th cent. 


. *j<s I O 


A.H. 1234" 
( = A.D. 1819) 
On ' ' Gombroon ' 


** ^ 


Mark of Youaz 
1 8th cent. 


jf-KXJ^ 


ware 







CHINESE PORCELAIN 

IT seems probable from literary evidence that porcelain was made 
in China at least as early as the T'ang dynasty (618-906 A.D.), 
but no examples of this period have reached Europe. The 
various makes of the Sung (960-1279) and Yuan (1280-1367) 
dynasties are known to us chiefly through a few of the coarser 
specimens of the creamy white ware of Ting-chou and the grey 
green celadon of Lung-ch uan-hsien, and through the comparatively 
modern copies which abound. Marks on these wares appear to 
have been unusual, though we read that the Chun-chou porcelain 
was sometimes marked with an engraved numeral, and a palace 
mark of the Yuan dynasty (Shu fit) is given on p. 1 49. Under the 
Ming dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), the Yung-lo period (1403-24) 
was celebrated for its fine white porcelain with engraved orna- 
ment ; the Hsiian-te period (1426-35) for blue and white (i.e. 
white porcelain painted in vmderglaze blue) and a brilliant under- 
glaze red decoration ; the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) for coloured 
decoration, painted in enamels and in glazes ; the Hung-chih 
period (1488-1505) for a pale transparent yellow ; the Chia-ching 
period (1522-66) for blue and white; the Lung-ch'ing (1567-72) 
and Wan-li (1573-1619) periods for enamelled decoration com- 
bined with underglaze blue, principally in five colours, including 
green, yellow, manganese purple and red. Genuine specimens 
of Ming porcelain made before the sixteenth century are practically 
unprocurable, though the marks of Hsiian-te and Ch'eng-hua 
occur very commonly on comparatively modern wares. 

The reigns of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722), Yung-cheng (1723-35) 
and Ch'ien-lung (1736-95) have supplied practically all the finest 
Chinese porcelain in European collections. The K'ang-hsi period 
is noted for the perfection of blue and white porcelain ; enamelled 

127 



128 POTTERY MARKS 

porcelains in three and five colours, 1 with a predominance of 
green in various shades, whence the French name fainille verte ; 
porcelain with coloured grounds, e.g. greenish-black, powder- 
blue, coral-red, coffee-brown, leaf-green, etc., and reserved decora- 
tion in other colours ; single-coloured wares with glazes of sang 
de bcenf red, peach-bloom, apple-green, and other tints. The 
reign of Yung-cheng (1723-35) was noted for the clever imitations 
of the ancient wares of the Sung dynasty with single-coloured, 
splashed, and crackled glazes. Indeed most of the archaic-looking 
specimens in our collections, with glazes of this description, were 
made about this time. Among enamels the various rose tints 
which came into -use at the end of the preceding reign, were fully 
developed ; and this period marks the transition of the fainille 
verte into the famille rose, the old translucent enamels of limited 
range being replaced by an extended palette of opaque colours. 
The elaborately and minutely painted " egg-shell " plates and 
services (often with ruby-red ground underneath) were decorated 
at Canton mainly for export ; and from this time onward large 
consignments of porcelain decorated to order with crests and 
coats of arms were shipped to Europe. The porcelain itself was 
made, like nearly all the Chinese porcelain known to us, at Ching- 
te-chen, 2 in the province of Kiangsi, but the enamelled decoration 
in Western taste was added in Canton. 

During the long reign of Ch'ien-lung (1736-95) mechanical 
perfection was reached in the manufacture of porcelain. There 
was little, old or new, that the potters could not achieve. Their 
glazes imitated jade, bronze, carved wood, lacquer, natural stones, i 
and all kinds of ornamental materials ; and many new glaze 
colours were adopted, e.g. souffle red of coral tint, deep sapphire 
blue (known as the "Temple of Heaven" blue), "iron-rust" and 
"tea-dust" glazes. The painted wares are wonders of manipu- 
lative skill, though their delicate and elaborate finish may not be 
so pleasing as the bolder style and broader effects of the K'ang- 
hsi porcelains. A gradual but sure decline set in after the reign 
of Ch'ien-lung, and the nineteenth-century porcelain can usually be 
distinguished from the old wares by its inferior potting, weaker 

1 The enamels are always translucent, and at this time an overglaza 
enamel blue largely replaced the underglaze blue in the five-colour decoration. 

2 The principal exception to this statement is the ivory-white porcelain 
known in France as blanc de Chine, which has been made in the province of 
Fu-chien from the early part of the Ming dynasty. 



CHINESE PORCELAIN 



129 



colours, and comparative poverty of design. Marks on Chinese 
porcelain group themselves as follows : (A) Date marks. (B) 
Hall marks. (C) Marks of commendation, description, etc. (D) 
Signatures. (E) Symbols. The inscriptions are either in ordinary 
script or in ancient seal characters (see p. 136), the ideographs 
being arranged in parallel columns, read from the top, and the 
columns taken from right to left. The mark is nearly always 
under the base and sometimes enclosed in a double ring, but on 
some of the older specimens it occurs on the side or neck of the 
vessel in a single vertical or horizontal line. It is usually painted 
in blue under the glaze ; though it also appears in red, black or 
gold on the glaze, particularly on wares of the present dynasty ; 
and it is sometimes stamped like a seal in the body of the ware. 

(A) DATE MARKS. Chinese dates are reckoned by two systems 
of chronology (i) Cycles of sixty years ; (2) the men-Jiao, i.e. 
arbitrary names given by the Emperors to the periods during 
which they reigned. 

I. Cyclical dates are not common and are, as a rule, incon- 
clusive, because they mention only the year of the cycle without 
specifying the cycle itself. The Chinese cycles are reckoned from 
B.C. 2637 ; but the table on p. 133, which begins at the 45th cycle 
and ends with the 7 6th (i.e. A.D. 4 to 1923), will suffice for ceramic 
purposes. Each year of the sixty is known by a name composed 
of one of the " Ten Stems " combined with one of the " twelve 
Branches," which are also the names of the signs of the Zodiac. 
Two examples will explain their use : 

123456 6 45 

Wu-ch'en nien Liang-chi shu = painting of Liang-chi in the 

I 2 3 

Wu-ch'en year. The first two characters will be found to 





represent the fifth year in the table, but no indication is given of 
the cycle to which it belongs. The second instance is exceptional 



1 30 POTTERY MARKS 

12 345 

and the date can be guessed. It reads Yu hsin-ch'ou nien chih = 

i 5 

made in the hsin-ch'ou year recurring. The hsin-ch'ou year, 
the 38th of the cycle, recurred in the reign of Kang-hsi who 
completed a full cycle of his reign in A.D. 1721. 

2. The commonest system of dating porcelain is by the 
Nien-hao, or reign-name adopted by the Emperor on the New 
Year succeeding the death of his predecessor. These dates are 
usually written in six characters in two columns ; the name of 
the dynasty coming first, followed by the reign-name of the 
Emperor ; the usual ending is men (year or period) chih (made), 
but the latter word is occasionally replaced by tsao which also 

I 2 

means "made" (see p. 150) e.g. Ta Ming 

3456 e 3 

Cfteng hua nien chih = made in the Ch'eng- 

f-f f+& 45 12 

"T* T/J 2 ^ ua P 6 " ^ (f the) great Ming (dynasty). 
* The mark is sometimes shortened into four 

\S characters by the omission of the name of 
the dynasty, (see p. 135). The individual year 
of the reign is very rarely specified. Occasion- 
ally the word_yar, Imperial, is used instead of nien : (see p. 150). 

The reader is cautioned that these reign-marks cannot be 
accepted as true dates, without other evidence. The Chinese, 
who venerate antiquity, make a practice of putting ancient dates 
on modern wares. Hsiian-te and CKeng-hua in the Ming 
dynasty, K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng and CWien-lung of the Cffing 
dynasty are commonly used in this way, because of the ceramic 
greatness of the reigns indicated. The exception to this caution 
is the Imperial porcelain, on which the mark is accurately and 
skilfully inscribed. 

The following tables include the principal reign-names of the 
Ming and CKing dynasties, marks previous to these being 
virtually unknown, although they are reputed to have been first 
placed on Imperial wares by order of the Emperor Chen-tsung in 
the period Ching-te (1004-7 A.D.). From the reign of Yung 
Cheng onwards seal characters were commonly used in the reign- 
marks, as shown below. A list ofChinese numerals is appended. 

(B) HALL MARK. The term "hall" here used is vague but 
comprehensive. It may refer to the shed of the potter, the 
studio of the painter, the shop of a dealer, the hall of a noble 



CHINESE PORCELAIN 131 

or the palace or pavilion of an Emperor. It may equally signify 
the place where, or the place for which the ware was made ; and 
in the absence of any preposition the meaning of the hall-mark 
must often remain obscure. The word used in those marks is 
usually fang, a hall (see p. 142) ; but t'tng, a summer-house also 
occurs, as well as c/tat, a studio (p. 144), /isuan, a terrace (p. 151), 
and fang, a retreat (p. 143). 

(C) MARKS OF COMMENDATION, etc., include (i) laudatory 
terms such as Pao sheng (of unique value) on p. 147, "a gem 
among precious vessels of rare jade " (p. 146), etc., referring to the 
beauty of the ware ; (2) words of good omen such as Shou 
(longevity), Fu (happiness), etc., implying a wish for the welfare 
of the owner of the vessel ; and (3) inscriptions which refer to the 
subject of the decoration, e.g. Tsai cffiian chih lo = " Feeling plea- 
sure in the water," the subject being fishes in a pool (see below). 

(D) SIGNATURES are rare on Chinese porcelain, chiefly because 
of the minute division of labour in the factories, where one 
piece sometimes passed through seventy hands. Some of the 
"hall marks," however, must be regarded as containing "studio 
names" of potters or decorators, and therefore as a kind of 
signature. 

(E) SYMBOLS, DEVICES, etc., so dear to the Chinese mind, are 
often found in place of a written mark, the commonest being the 
Eight Buddhist symbols, the attributes of the Taoist Immortals, 
the Hundred Antiques, and Emblems of Happiness or Long-life 
such as the bat and the fungus. More rarely a group of objects 
can be translated rebus-fashion into a good wish ; e.g. a pencil- 
brush (pi) with a cake of ink (ting) and a (ju-i) sceptre or magic 
wand, together connote the phrase Pi ting ju-i ^ " May (things) be 
fixed as you wish " (p. 141 ). 

In the year 1667 the Emperor K'ang-hsi forbade the use of 
the Imperial title or any sacred phrase on china, lest it should 
be broken and desecrated. It is unlikely that the prohibition 
remained in force for more than a few years, but during that 
time the double ring intended to enclose the mark either 
remained blank or was filled with a device or symbol or some 
other permissible substitute. 



chili 



lo TJV J*\ ch'uan 




132 POTTERY MARKS 



CHINESE POTTERY 

THE manufacture of pottery in China is of immemorial 
antiquity, but its history prior to the Han dynasty (B.C. 206 
A.D. 220) is only of antiquarian interest. At this time it appears 
from literary evidence that stoneware, a very hard and partially 
vitrified pottery, was made ; and from actual existing specimens 
that a red earthenware with green or yellow glaze was fashioned 
in vases of more or less artistic form, borrowed from the still 
more ancient bronzes. The spread of tea-drinking during the 
T'ang dynasty (A.D. 618-906) proved, no doubt, a great stimulus 
to the potters, but we know little about the results of their efforts 
before the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1368-1644). It was in the reign 
of Cheng-te (1506-1521) that the potteries of Yi-hsing-hsien, in 
the province of Kiangsu, were started. The Yi-hsing ware is an 
unglazed pottery of varying hardness, and usually of red, buff, or 
fawn colours. It was called by the Portuguese "buccaro," and 
is best known in tea-pots of fantastic shapes, -such as Bb'ttger of 
Dresden, certain Dutch potters, and Dwight and Elers in 
England copied at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries. The later examples are often 
enamelled and the manufacture continues to this day. Important 
stoneware factories exist in the province of Kuang-tung, dating 
perhaps from the Sung dynasty (A. p. 960-1279), but best known 
to us by their later products, e.g. jars, vases, and figures with 
splashed and mottled glazes with a prevailing blue or bluish grey 
tone streaked and flecked with scarlet, green, and olive brown. 
There are potteries near Peking producing good copies of the 
porcelain with turquoise and aubergine glazes, and there are 
many obscure factories which supply local needs ; but the Chinese 
pottery in European hands can, as a rule, be safely assigned to 
either a Yi-hsing or Canton origin. 

Marks on Chinese pottery usually consist of impressed seals 
giving the name (or art-name) of the potter or place of 
manufacture ; and date-marks are uncommon. 



CHINESE CYCLES 45 TO 76, OR A.D. 4 TO 1923 



CYCLE BEGINNING 



604 
904 



64 

364 
664 
964 



204 1264 
i54 



1804 



1864 



124 

424 
724 
024 

324 
624 



184 

484 
784 
084 
384 



244 

544 

844 

1144 

1444 

1744 



CYCLE BEGINNING 



A.D. 

4 

34 

604 

904 

1204 



1804 



6 4 
3 6 4 
664 
964 
264 

564 

864 







T ^n 
jfc 
ee, 



i _r <a 

lX & 

S4R 



as 



04 

05 
06 
07 
08 
09 

IO 

II 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 

19 
20 

21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
3 
31 

33 



64 

65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

72 
73 
'74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 

83 
84 
85 
86 

87 
88 

89 
90 

92 
93 



4 s 

43 

44 
45 
46 

47 
48 
49 
5" 
5 1 
52 
53 



84 
85 
86 

87 
88 

89 
90 
9i 
92 

93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 

99 

IOO 
IOI 
102 
103 
104 

1 06 
107 
1 08 
IO9 

no 
in 

112 
113 



44 

45 
46 

47 
48 

49 
5 



53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 

63 
64 

65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

72 
73 



c.e 



1LW 

T G 



34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
40 

42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 

49 
50 
S 1 

53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 



94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 

IOO 
IOI 

1 02 

103 

104 

105 

1 06 

107 

1 08 
109 
no 
in 
112 

"3 
114 

"5 
116 

117 
118 
119 

I2O 
121 
122 
123 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 

NlENHAO OF THE EMPERORS ON PORCELAIN AND POTTERY 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





yt 




.HIS 

If! 

EE 






Wu feng erh nien 

second year of 

Wu F6ng, i.e. 

56 B.C. 



Yung p'ing yuan 
nien tsao = made 
in the first year 
of Yung P'ing, 
i.e. 58 A.D. 



Sung dynasty 
Ching Te 
(1004-7) 



Hsi Ning 
(1068-77) 




Sung dynasty 

Yuan Feng 
(1078-85) 



Ming dynasty 

Hung Wu 
(1368-98) 



Yung Lo 
(1403-24) 



The same in 
archaic script 



Hsiian Te 
(1426-35) 



The same in 
seal characters 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



MAKK. 



1-* 

* 



A 



91 

t* 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



Ming dynasty 



Ch'6ng Hua 
(1465-87) 



The same 



The same in seal 
characters 



Hung Chih 
(1488-1505) 



Cheng T3 
(1506-21) 



Chia Ching 
(1522-66) 



Lung Ch'ing 
(1567-72) 






A ^ 
' 7I 

f& A 

p *A 

r /^) 

1 "I 






t 






DESCRIPTION. 



Ming dynasty 



Wan Li 

(1573-1619) 



T'ien Ch'i 
(1621-27) 



Ch'ung Chen 
(1628-43) 



Ch'ing dynasty 

Shun Chih 
(1644-61) 



The same in seal 
characters 



K'.ing Hsi 
(1662-1722) 



The same in seal 
characters 



I 3 6 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



MARK. 



i A 



ffl 

SSHiiB 



it, 



n-n 



Wti 



DESCRIPTION. 



Ch'ing dynasty 



Yung ChSng 
(1723-35) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Ch'ien Lung 
(1736-95) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Chia Ch'ing 
(1796-1820) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Tao Kuang 
(1821-50) 



MARK. 




A 



lf 



s. 



DESCKIPTIOX. 



Ch'ing dynasty 

Tao Kuang 
(1821-50) 



Hsien Feng 
(1851-61) 



The same in seal 
characters 



T'ung Chih 
(1862-74) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Kuang Hsii 
1875-1909 



The same in seal 
characters 



Hsiian T'ung 
1910-12 



CHINESE NUMERALS 137 



CHINESE NUMERALS 



I 
II 



Yi 



f-K Erh 

o ~" "1 ^^ 

"^ 1 1 1 Jg San (rare) 

ffl X ft Ssa 
5. y -ffi. 

XN -** 1^ Liu 

7 Jte JL Ch'i 

iSfl Pa 



A 



4* 



JJ. 






Chi" 
Shih 



These Chinese numerals will assist in calculating those rare Chinese and 
Japanese dates in which a particular year, month, or day is specified. 
Three forms are given : the common form on the left, the short form in 
the middle ; and the long form on the right. Chinese numerals of the 
common form were used as marks on the Chiin-chou porcelain of the Sung 
dynast}' (960-1279 A.D. ). 

The numerals in Japanese read : i. Ichi. 2. Futatsu or Ni. 3. San. 
4. Yotsu or Shi. 5. Itsutsu. 6. Mutsu or Roku. 7. Nanatsu or Shichi. 
8. Yatsu or Hachi. 9. Kokohotsu or Ku. 10. Ju or To. 



138 CHINESE PORCELAIN SYMBOLIC MARKS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 











The Eight 

Precious Things 

(Pa Pao) 

Chu (a jewel) 



'h'ien (" a cash ") 



Fang-sheng (a 

ozenge, symbol oi 

victory) 



Hua (a painting) 



:h'ing (a hanging 

musical stone of 

jade) 



Shu (a pair of 
books) 



Chiieh (a pair of 

rhinoceros horn 

cups) 



Ai-yeh (an arte- 
misia leaf) 



<&&&> 






The Eight 
Buddhist Em- 
blems (Pa Chi- 

hsiang) 

Cheng (a bell). 
Sometimes the 
wheel (lun) is 
substituted for 
the bell 

Lo (a conch 
shell) 



San 
State umbrella) 



Kai (canopy) 



Lien Hua 
(lotus flower) 



P'ing (vase) 



Ytt (a pair of 
fishes) 



Chang 

(entrails) an 
endless knot 



CHINESE PORCELAIN HARE, LEAF, LOTUS, ETC. 139 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




\ hare looking at 

the moon. 

K'ang-hsi period 

(1662-1722) 





A hare (T'u). 
Late Ming and 
C'ang-hsi periods 



The hare which 

lives in the moon 

making the elixir 

of life, is veneratec 

by the Taoists 



Artemisia leaf : 
good omen 



Lotus flower 






Lotus flower 



Flowers 





Prunus spray 
(Mei hua) 



Fungus 
(Lingchih) 
Emblem of 
Longevity 



A bat and two 
peaches (Fu 
shou Shuang 
ch'iian)arebu 
= " Happiness 
and longevity 
both com- 
plete " 



1 40 CHINESE PORCELAIN FLOWER, TRIPOD, ETC. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




Flower 






r 





Head of a ju-i 
sceptre (of Long- 
evity) 



Endless knot 



Insect 




I 





Four-legged in- 
cense burner 
(Ting) See p. 97 



A four-legged 
incense burner 



A tripod incense 
burner 



A tripod vase 



A tailless stork. 

Marks engraved 
on specimens in 
the Dresden col- 
lection : zigag, 
on blue and white : 

cross on Japanese 

wares : 

H, on Chinese 

famille verte : 

triangle, on white 

Chinese : 
arrow, on red 

Chinese : 

parallelogram on 

"Old Indian" 

porcelain 



CHINESE PORCELAIN SYMBOLIC MARKS 141 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





?u (one of the 12 
ncient embroidery 
ornaments) 



Pearl symbol 







Shell symbol 



Pearl symbol 



? Musical instru- 
ments 



Lozenge symbol 



Swastika symbol 

or fylfot, in a 

lozenge 



Lozenge symbol 









Lozenge symbol 



Pair of books 



Cash symbol 



Two fishes, 
emblem of felicity 




Perhaps rhinocero 
horn cups 



A brush (pi) 

a cake of ink (ting 

and a sceptre of 

longevity fju-i), 

making the rebus 

Pi ting ju-i = 

May (things) be 

fixed as you 

wish ! " 



142 



CHINESE PORCELAIN " HALL " MARKS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 







f 4 




Yii t'ang chia ch'i 

= beautiful vessel 

for the jade hall. 

Late Ming and 

early Ch'ing 

dynasties 



Yung lo t'ang chih 

= made at the 

Yung lo (perpetual 

enjoyment hall) 

c. 1730 



Ts'ai hua t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

painting. 

1820-50 



Chih hao t'ang 

ch'ing shang 

pure gift from the 

hall of good 

endeavour. 

1821-50 



Ts'ai hsiu t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

decorations. 

1821-50 



Yu tzu t'ang chih 

= made for the 

hall of friends and 

scholars. 

1662-1722 





* 



Chih yuan t'ang 

chih = made at 

the hall of wide 

extension. 

1736-95 



Ching wei t'ang 

chih = made for the 

hall of respectful 

awe. 

A palace mark 
1736-95 



Te hsing t'ang 

hih = made for the 

hall of fragrant 

virtue. 



Lu i t'ang = 

Hall of green 

ripples : 

1 8th cent. 



Yii hai t'ang 

:hih = made in the 

hall of ocean jade. 

1662-1722 



Shen tS t'ang chih 

= made for the 
hall of cultivation 

of virtue. 

Palace mark 

1820-50 



CHINESE PORCELAIN, "HALL" MARKS 



'43 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



tl 





i) 



* 

J * 



#& 



Shen te t'ang po 

ku chih = antique 

made at the Shen- 

t& hall, 1820-50 



Chii shun mei yii 
t'ang chih = made 
at the Chii shun 

hall of beautiful 
jade. 

late 1 7th cent. 



Ts'ai jun t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

colours, 
early igth cent. 



I yu t'ang chih = 

made at the hall 

of ? prosperity 

and profit. 

? i7th cent. 



Ta shu t'ang chih 

= made at the 

big tree hall. 

1820-50 



Ch'i yii t'ang chih 

= made at the hall 

of rare jade. 

1662-1722 





Lin yii t'ang chih 
= made at the hall 
of abundant jade. 
1662-1722 



Ching lien t'ang 
fang ku chih 

= imitations of 
antiques made at 
the Chinglien hall. 

late 1 8th cent. 



Yang ho t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall for the 

cultivation of 

harmony. 

1723-35 



Jui lu shan fang 

chien chih = made 

in the mountain 

dwelling under the 

superintendence 

of Jui-lu. 

1662-1722 



Chih Ian chai 
chih = made in 
the epidendrum 

studio. 
I7th cent. 



Tan ning chai 

chih = made in the 

pavilion of peace 

and tranquillity. 

i73 6 -95 



i 4 4 CHINESE PORCELAIN HALL MARKS, ETC. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





# 



t 

^* 




Ssu pu chai chih 
= made for the 
pavilion of medita- 
tion for the correc- 
tion of faults. 
? early i8th cent. 



Kuei yueh shan 
chuang = work- 
shop of the Cassia 
Moon Mountain. 
1820-50 

Jo shn ch'en 

tsang = to be 

treasured like a 

gem from the 

deep. 

1 8th and igth 
cent. 

Huo ch'i jo shen 
ch'n tsang = to 
be treasured like 
a deep jem from 
the boiling 

stream, 
early i8th cent. 

Ya su kung shang 

= For the learned 

and common 

alike to take 

pleasure in. 

early i8th cent. 

Hsi ch'en ku wan 

= antique of the 

" mat jewel " 

(i.e. scholar) 

1662-1722 



Te hua ch'ang 
ch'un = Virtue 
culture and endur- 
ing spring ! 
surrounded by the 
date mark of 

Wan-li 
(1573-1619) 





Yung ch'ing 
ch'ang ch'un 
= Eternal pros- 
perity and 
enduring spring ! 

T'ien ti yi chia 
ch'un = Springtime 

in heaven and 

earth one family. 

(Motto of the 

late Empress 

Dowager) 

and Ta Ya Chai 

= Pavilion of 

grand culture : 

(one of her 

palaces) 
late i gth cent. 



Ssu yu mei yii ya 

chih = thoughts 

elegantly expressed 

in beautiful jade 

1662-1722 



Ta chi = Great 
good-luck ! 



Chi hsiang ju i 

= Good fortune 

and fulfilment of 

wishes ! 



Shuang hsi = 
Double( or wedded ) 
joy ! On wedding 
gifts 



CHINESE PORCELAIN FORMS OF SHOU 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



1- 

vr 



JS, 

0~3 



* 

i 

i 



ft 






/03l 



/Sv 

& 
/fv 



m 



\/ 

/fl 



\s 



d^ 
DCT 

M 
*> 

& 



Si 



IH 



\/ 



\/ 



^ O^ 

run 



AIA 
* 









Various forms 



longevity, the 

common form 

of which is 



\-t-r 



vt/ 





kiMft/niM 



146 CHINESE PORCELAIN COMMENDATION MARKS 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION'. 




Urn 






Shou (longevity) 

A curious form 

mown in Holland 

as the spider mark 



Fu = happiness 



in various forms 



Lu emolument 



An unusual form 

of Fu Shou = 

Happiness and 

long life ! 



Wan fu yu t'ung 

= May infinite 

happiness embrace 

all your affairs ! 

i6th cent. 





Jt 



Fu kuei chia ch'i 
= fine vase for the 
rich and honour- 
able. 
1 6th cent. 



Ch'ang ming fu 

kuei = Long life, 

riches, and honour 

in a circle like a 

' 'cash." 
i6th cent. 



Ch'ing = Con- 

gratulations ! 



Ch'i yii pao ting 
chih che'n = A gem 

among precious 

vessels ofrarejade ! 

1662-1722 



Ch'ishih pao ting 

chih chfin = A gem 

among precious 

vessels of rare 

stone ! 



Ch'i chen ju yii 
= A gem rare as 

jade ! 
1662-1722 



CHINESE PORCELAIN COMMENDATION MARKS 147 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



* 



% 



to 



-Isi yii = Western 

jade 
earlv i8th cent. 



u lai Arrival of 
friends 



Pao shung = In- 
expressibly 
precious 
early i8th cent. 



Tan kuei = red 

olive : emblem of 

literary honours 

i6th cent. 



Nan ch'uan chin 
yii = embroidered 
ade of Nan-ch'uni 
a name for Ching 

te-chen). 

1662-1722 



Shuai fu kung 
yung = for public 
use in the general' 
hall. 1 7th cent. 



Sheng yu ya chi 
= Elegant collec- 
tion of holy friend 
1662-1722 




B 




Ai lien chfin shang 

= Precious reward 

of the lover of 

the lotus ! 

1820-50 



Po ku chun wan 

= a jewelled 

trinket of antique 

art 



'ien kuan tz'ii fu 

= May the 
heavenly powers 
confer happiness ! 



Wan shou \vu 
chiang = A myriac 
ages never ending 



\\"an shou \vu 

chiang = A myriai 

ages never eiuling 

Usually written 

in an horizontal 

line 



148 CHINESE PORCELAIN COMMENDATION MARKS 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. ' 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 






-p 


T'ien = heaven 


J-* X, 


We'll chang shan 

ton = Scholarship 


^vT 


early i8th cent. 




lofty as the hills 


. 




4 * 


and the Great 
Bear! 
1662-1722 


a 


Ya wan = elegant 
trinket 






$L 


early i8th cent. 


3. 


Yii=jade 


i: 




* 


Ku = antique 
1662-1722 


* 


Chen yii = verit- 
able jade 


3J^ 


Chen a pearl 









1662-1722 


jjTC/ 










Wan yii = trinket 






^ 


jade 


T&& 


Ya = elegant 


j^. 




TfiL 


1 7th cent. 


. 




* 


Ch'iian = complete 


% 


Chn wan 


^> 


1 7th cent. 


^L 


= precious trinket 


% 


Sheng = holy 
1662-1722 




? Pao (precious) 


i * i 







- 


or Shan wang 






"T* 


i8th cent. 


oar 


Shun = elegant 






/tl9 


1662-1722 






*s\ 




\ iv 
till 


? A shop mark 






SMI 


undeciphered 


0$}^ 


Hsing = exalted 


* ~^ 




>T\ 


1662-1722 










/$\ 


Shih fu - manifest 






yv\v 


happiness 


l3l 


Kuo = national 


Sjrt\ 


enclosed in a 


JSXJ 


1662-1722 


/Ail 


ground, engraved 






Vi/ 


1662-1722 



CHINESE PORCELAIN NAMES OF POTTERS, ETC. 149 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 







itti 



H 
PA 



"u fan chih tsao = 
manufactured on 
the boundaries of 

(the province of) 
Fuchien. 

Early i6th cent. 



? Lai (a name) 
1662-1722 



? Chao-chin 

(a name) 

Early i8th cent. 

stamped 



Cheng ku shih = 

Cheng-ku family 

1 8th cent. 

engraved 



Li-chih (a name) 

stamped 

1 8th cent. 



Lin c'hang fa tsao 

= made by Lin- 

ch'ang fa 

i73 6 -95 



Ch'en kuo chih 

tsao = made by 

Ch'en-kuo-chih. 

on biscuit 

1662-1722 








* 




Shang su 
(name) 
1736-95 



Yuan Sin-hsing 

tsao = made by 

Yuan Sin-hsing 

loth cent. 



Chang Ming kao 

tsao = made by 

Chang Ming-kao. 

on biscuit 

1662-1722 



Chih = made to 
order (i.e. 
imperial) 



Fa = emitted 

(i.e. for sale) 

1622-1722 



Shu fu = imperial 

palace. On Yuan 

dynasty ware 

(1280-1367) 



Baragon Turned = 
Western Turned 

1820-50 

(Mongolian script) 

Made for the 

princess of the 

west wing of the 

Turned Mongolian 

banners 



150 CHINESE PORCELAIN DESCRIPTIVE MARKS 



MARK. 




DESCRIPTION. 



Ch'a = tea 



Chiu = wine 



Tsao t'ang = 

decoction of dates 

(chow-chow) 

Chiang t'ang= 
decoction of ginger 



Kuan lien fang 
chin = made for 
the look-lily boat 

(i.e. excursion 

boat for viewing 

the lotus flowers) 

1736-95 



Ts'ang lang 
lii shiu = green 

water of the 

boundless ocean 

i6th cent. 



Chung ch'^ng fu = 

father ' ' governor " 

i.e. governor of a 

province) 



Chung ch'gng 
= governor of 

a province. 

On copies of old 

crackle ware 

made 1723-35 



MARK. 






DESCRIPTION. 



Shan jen ch'en 
wei = The Hermit 

Ch'en-wei 

? 1 7th cent. 

inc. on white 

Fuchicn porcelain 



Hsieh chu tsao = 

made for the 

Hsieh bamboos 

early igth cent. 



Hsieh chu chu jen 
tsao = made for the 
Lord of the Hsieh 

Bamboos 
early igth cent. 



Kuan yao nei tsao 

=:made at the 

government factory 

1820-50 



Yung cheng yii 
chih = made by 

order of the 

Emperor Yung 

cheng 



Lien ch'Sng 

ch'i hou 

Probably Lien- 

ch'Sng is a potter's 

name 



CHINESE PORCELAIN POTTERS' NAMES, ETC. 151 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


3T I 7 L/ 

F* M ''. 

G 


-*_ 
g> 



^ 


= Made by Wang 
Shfing-kao at the 
end of the 4th 
month of the 
3rd year of Chia- 
ch'ing "(*.. 1 798). 
on " rice-grain" 
porcelain 

Probably a copy 
of the letter G 
(1662-1722) 

Chu shih chii;= 
The red rocks 
retreat 

Wan shih chii = 
The myriad rocks 
retreat 

Tsui Yueh hsiian 


4U@rrr 


Yii feng yang lin 
= Yang-lin of Yii 
feng (a place not 
ar from C'hing-tfi- 
chen). on an 
' egg-shell " plate 

Yu chai = quiet 
Pavilion (studio 
name of painter) 
c. 1724. on an 
' egg-shell" plate 

Rung tiling fu 
kuei Hung fu ch'i 
t'ien= "A famous 
name, riches and 
honour : abound- 
ing happiness 
reaching to 
heaven ! " on an 
" egg-shell "plate 
c. 1724 

Uncertain seal 
marks 

Square seal 
(1662-1722) 
copied at 
Worcester 

Mark (unde- 
ciphered) on 
porcelain made 
for the Siamese 
market. iSthcent. 


ffijlll 


il 

(jW 


m 


it 


f~"") t | i 
1 "l '^ 


( 


{/ G/D 


1" 


3Ji | ^ 

"' a 


111 




chih = made on the 
terrace of the 
drunken moon 

Ling nan hui che 
= a Lingnan (i.e. 
Canton) painting ; 
and the seal 
Pai shih = White 
Rock (a studio 
name of a painter) 
c. 1724 

on an " egg-shell ' 
porcelain plate 






i 


I 







n 


1 



152 CHINESE POTTERY AND STONEWARE CANTON 



MARK. 






DESCRIPTION. 



Wu chn hsien 
yao = pottery of 
Wu chen-hsien 



Canton stoneware 

I sheng = 
Harmonious 
prosperity, 
on Canton stone- 
ware 



Ko Ming hsiang 

chih made by 

Ko Ming-hsiang 

1 8th cent. 



Ko yuan hsiang 

chih = made by 

Ko Yiian-hsiang 

1 8th cent. 



Huang-yiin chi 
= registered by 

Huang-yur. 

igth cent. 



Chien yiian kai ti 

= The respect of 

Chen -yuan 

1 8th cent. 



MARK. 



$ 



Jfv 



(=> 



e' ',% 




-f 

*P7l 



DESCRIPTION". 



anton stoneware 

-i-ta-lai (name of 

a potter) 
lanton stoneware 
i8th or igth cent. 



T'ai yiian (potter] 
1 8th or igth cent. 



Yiieh ch'ang 
(potter) 

Yi-hsing pottery 

Yi-hsing (on red 
stoneware of Yi- 
hsing-hsien, in 
Chang-chou-fV.) 
1 9th cent. 

Hui Meng-cl 'en 
chih = mad * by 
Hui Mdng-ch en. 
An old name on 
modern wares 



Meng-ch'6n and 
Hui 



Yu-lan-pi chih = 
made by Yu-lan- 



Chin-Yiian-yu chi 

;= registered by 

Chin-yiian-yu 

igth cent. 



CHINESE POTTERS' NAMES ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




m 

T 



Ch'eri t'ien sui 
tsao. made by 
Ch'en T'ien-sui. 

K'ang Hsi period 
(1662-1722) 



Wang pu t'ing 

tso = made by 

Wang Pn-t'ing. 

Early igth cent. 



Wang ping Jung 

tso = made by 
Wang Ping-jung. 
Early igth cent. 



Wan li ting yu 
ch'fin w6n ching 
su = Ch'e-n Win- 
ching modelled it 

in the ting yu 

year of Wan Li 

(1597 A.D.) 



T'ien ch'i i ch'ou 

nien chin shih 

chih = made by 

Chin-shih in the 

i-ch'ou year of 

T'ien Ch'i 

(1625 A.D.) 







Rung liang chi 

tsao = made by 

Kung Liang-chi. 

c. 1700 



Chang chia tsao 

= made by 

Chang-chia. 

? i6th cent. 



\\'ang shih ch'ih 
ming=Mr. Wang 
Ch'ih-ming 
? i6th cent. 



Ts'ui. 
? 1 3th cent. 



Lai Kuan 
1 7th cent. 

Yi-hsing pottery 

Chih ting = 

Sesamum pavilion 

i8th cent. 



Hsiu lung te chi 
= recorded by 
Hsiu Lung-tft 

Earlv i8th cent. 



Ch'6n ming yuan 
chih = made by 

Ch'en NJing-yuan. 
Early i8th cent. 



I52B CHINESE "HALL" MARKS, ETC. ADDITIONAL 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



t* 



JL 

a" H 





Jen ho 

kuan = 

house 

of benevolent 

harmony. 

Sung period. 

(960-1279 A.D.) 



Jen ts'un 

t'ang = hall 

of benevolence. 

? i 8th century 



San ho t'ang 
chin = made for 
the hall of triple 

harmony. 
Early igth cent. 



Yii t'ang 

chia ch'i = 

beautiful vessel 

of the jade hall. 

Early i7th cent. 



Shan tso. 

Shang ku 

t'ang kung 

tsao = made 

for general use 

in the Shang-ku 

hall. Shan tso = 

jrov. of Shantung. 

1 8th cent. 



Nan hsiang 

t'ang = south 

aspect hall. 

1 8th cent. 



3 






Chan ching chai 
chih = made for 
the hall of pro- 
found peace. 
Early igth cent. 



Ku yiieh hsiian 

chih = made on the 

ancient moon 

terrace. 
Early i8th cent. 



Ch'ien yin shu wu 

ch'en tsang = a 

gem to be treasured 

in the Ch'ien yin 

study. 
1 8th cent. 



Yii ch6n = a 
jade gem. 
1 8th cent. 



Shu ch'ang, i.e. 

made for the Shu 

ch'ang, a college 

in the Han lin 

University at 

Peking. 

Kung = (good) 

workmanship. 

c. 1700 



Ma chen Shih tsao 

= made by Ma 

Chen-shin. 

T'ang dynasty 
(618-906 A.D.) 



JAPANESE POTTERY 

THOUGH a primitive pottery was made in Japan before our era, 
it was not till the practice of tea-drinking necessitated a better 
class of ware that anything of artistic pretensions was made. In 
the thirteenth century Kato Shirozaemon, better known as Toshiro, 
journeyed to China to learn the secrets of the Chinese potters. 
On his return he made the first glazed wares, which consisted 
chiefly of tea-jars and tea-bowls of fine stoneware with rich streaky 
glazes, amber brown, chocolate, and purplish black, sometimes 
superposed. A yellow glaze was added in the next generation. 
These glazes, known as Seto gusuri, or Seto glazes, were for long 
the only covering for Japanese pottery. Towards the end of the 
sixteenth century, after the invasion of Corea, a number of Corean 
potters were transplanted to Japan by the victorious Hideyoshi 
and proved a powerful influence in Japanese ceramics. Tea- 
drinking became an organised cult, and the tea societies (Chanoyu) 
acquired a semi-political significance. In their ceremonies the 
tea-drinkers studied an almost rude simplicity, and the wares 
affected by them were of an archaic character, so that the potters 
had to devote themselves to copying the old Seto and Corean 
wares. The latter included wares with greyish-white glaze, or 
grey stoneware inlaid with white or black clays in what was called 
Mishima style. Another important class of tea-ware was a soft 
pottery with smooth waxen glaze in brown, black, salmon red, or 
yellow colours, known as Raku ware and introduced by a Corean 
named Ameya early in the sixteenth century. A seal engraved 
with the word Raku (Happiness) was given to Chojiro, the second 
generation of the family in 1588, and has been used by his 
descendants ever since. Raku ware was easily made and required 
only a low temperature in the baking ; it has been manufactured 

'S3 



154 POTTERY MARKS 

by a large number of potters, professional and amateur, in various 
parts of Japan. 

Among the old factories Takatori was noted for rich, variegated 
and mahogany glazes of the Seto style ; Karatsu and Hagi for 
wares of Corean type ; and Shigaraki for rough archaic pottery 
with blistered and corrugated glaze. A rich brown or slatey grey 
stoneware, with no glaze at all or only an accidental covering, was 
made in Bizen from early times : admirably modelled figures 
and groups have for long been made afc Imbe, in this province. 
A grey stoneware with translucent glaze specked with brown was 
made at Iwaki in the province of Soma, and was generally 
decorated with a tethered horse, the princely badge of the 
province. Grey ware with fine inlaid white ornament, a develop- 
ment of the Corean Mishima style, is peculiar to Yatsushiro ; and 
the province of Ise is distinguished by the work of a clever 
amateur of the eighteenth century whose art name is Banko. He 
also worked at Yedo copying Raku, Corean, and Kioto wares. 
His seal was used by Mori Yusetsu, who revived his work in 1830, 
and who was further noted for the use of interior moulds for his 
fine stoneware teapots which show outside the finger-prints of the 
potter. 

The Kioto potters worked in every style, but the district of 
Awata is specially noted for a beautiful pottery with hard greyish 
white body and translucent glazes varying from grey to cream 
colour and finely crackled. In the early part of the seventeenth 
century this ware was painted in blue or brown under the glaze ; 
but in the latter part of that period the celebrated potter, whose 
art name is Ninsei, learnt the secret of enamelling on the glaze 
from the porcelain makers in Hizen. He was followed by the 
Kenzan, Kinkozan, Hozan, Taizan and other families whose 
descendants in many cases still produce the finely enamelled 
Awata faience. But the most beautiful pottery of this type is the 
ivory white ware of the province of Satsuma, with its lustrous 
velvety surface and scarcely perceptible crackle. This ware, which 
probably dates from the seventeenth century, was at first undeco- 
rated ; enamelled ornaments were sparingly applied in the eigh- 
teenth century, but in modern times the quality of the ware has 
degenerated and the mass of decoration increased. Indeed a 
large proportion of the ware is now sent to Tokio, where it is 
entirely covered with rich enamels and gilding. There were 
other and older wares made in the province of Satsuma with 



JAPANESE POTTERY 155 

glazes of Seto type, shrivelled glazes resembling shark-skin in 
texture, mottled tortoiseshell glazes, and brown painted designs, but 
these are little known or appreciated in Europe. 

Another kind of pottery, in close imitation of a Chinese ware 
called by the Japanese Kochi-yaki, was successfully made by 
Zengoro Hozen, whose art name is Eiraku. This is a stoneware 
or semi-porcelain with turquoise, green, and purple glazes usually 
kept apart by the raised outlines of the ornament, but sometimes 
laid on singly over the entire piece. Eiraku flourished in the first 
half of the nineteenth century and his family still uses his seal. 
He worked at Kioto and in the province of Kishiu or Kii. 

Marks on Japanese pottery are incised, stamped, or painted. 
The stamps or seals are by far the most numerous. They usually 
give the name of the potter or place of manufacture or, more 
rarely, the name of the Temple or place where the ware was sold. 
Japanese craftsmen almost always adopt an " art-name," sometimes 
more than one, and these are the names that chiefly occur in the 
potter's marks. Thus Zengoro Hozen signed with the name 
Eiraku and also with the seal Kahin Shiriu given to him by 
a princely patron, while Ogata Shinsho, best known by his art 
name Kenzan, is credited with at least ten pseudonyms. 
Japanese potters worked singly, and the number of signa- 
tures of professional and amateur potters is immense. 

I 2 

Marks containing the words tei (house) and yen (garden) 
pel correspond to the Chinese " hall marks." The following 
** 2 list is a selection of the most important marks arranged 
geographically. Japanese marks are usually written in Chinese 



= tsukuru, sei, seisu, or zo = made J/G =S aku = made 



= Koreo tsukuru = made this 



' 



= hitsu = drawn 



= sei = made (synonym of tsukuru) Vir = ga f . - ve S aku = 




156 POTTERY MARKS 

script or seal characters, more rarely in the cursive Japanese 
writing. They commonly end in the word set or tsukuru (Ch. 
chih] = made, varied by such words as saku = made : hitsu (pencil) 
= drawn : ga or yegaku = painted. Tsukuru followed by the 
word Kore ( = this) is read Kore o tsukuru made this. Some- 
times the mark ends in, or solely consists of a Kakihan, i.e. 
written seal (see p. 179), a flourish or sign without literary 
meaning. 

Date marks are given in two ways as on Chinese wares : ( i ) 
the cyclical system which is identical with the Chinese (p. 1 29) ; (2) 
the nengo which corresponds with the Chinese nien hao, being a 
period, the name and length of which are determined by the 
Emperor. The list of nengo began in 645 A.D. ; but the following 
section beginning in 1370 is sufficient for identifying pottery 
marks. The table of numerals on page 137 will be useful in this 
connection. 

In the columns of Japanese marks the headings in heavy type 
are the names of provinces. Place-names have been printed in 
italics, where they might be otherwise confused with the names 
of potters, which are printed in ordinary type. 



JAPANESE POTTERY 



157 



JAPANESE DATES (NENGO). 






JTK 



Ken-toku 

Bun-chu 

Ten-ju . 

Ko-wa . 

Gen-chu 

Mei-toku 

O-ei . . 

Sho-cho . 

Ei-kio . 

Ka-kitsu 

Bun -an . 

Ho-toku 

K5-toku 

Ko-sho . 

Cho-roku 

Kwan-sho 

Bun-sho 

0-nin 

Bun-mei 

Cho-ko . 

En-toku . 

Mei-6 

Bun-ki . 

Ei-sho . 

Dai-ei . 

Ko-roku 

Tern-bun 



!37Q 
1372 

1375 
1381 

1384 
1393 

1394 
1428 
1429 
1441 
1444 
1449 
i45 2 
1455 
1457 
1460 
1466 
1467 
1469 
1487 
1489 
1492 
1501 

1504 
1521 
1528 
IS32 



1&JE 

Hh Ffn 
XN. 'o 






1* 



Ko-ji 
Ei-roku . 
Gen-ki . . 
Ten-sho . . 
Bun-roku . 
Kei-cho . 
Gen-na . 
Kwan-ei 
Sho-ho .- , 
Kei-an . 
J6-6 . 
Mei-reki 
Man-ji . 
Kwam-bun , 
Em-p<5 . 
Ten-na . 
J6-kio . 
Gen-roku 
H6-ei . 
Sho-toku 
Kio-ho . 
Gem-bun 
Kwam-po 
En-kio . 
Kwan-en 
Ho-reki . 
Mei-wa . 
An-ei 



iSSS 

1558 
1570 

'573 
IS92 
1596 
1615 
1624 
1644 
1648 
1652 

1655 
1658 
1661 

1673 
1681 
1684 
1688 
1704 
1711 
1716 

I73 6 
1741 

1744 
1748 

I75 1 
1764 

1772 



'53 


LOTTERY MARKS 




'JAPANESE DATES (NENGO). 


B ^^v 


Tem-mei 


. . 1781 


On p. 189 


is a complete ex- 


J&llL 


Kwan-se 


. . 1789 


ample of a Japanese mark, in- 


dC. ^*- 






cluding a date, 


i.e. "Made at Oto- 


W*^?- 


Ki5-wa . 


.- . 1801 


koyama, in Southern Kii, in the 


ffc* 


Bun-kwa 


. 1804 


first year of Ka-ei" (A.D. 1848). 


]F/co> 


Bun-sei . 


. . 1818 


Below are five 


other examples of 


stt ~r~ 






date-marks. 




\7 ~ir\ 


Tem-po . 


. . 1830 






ft|A 


Ko-kwa . 


. . 1844 






TK^J 


Ka-ei . 


. . 1848 






jR^Sr 


An-sei . 


1854 






SESfj 


Man-en . 


. . 1860 






A;*: 


Bun -kiu . 


. . 1861 






fiBS 


Gen-ji 


. . 1864 






/5S/1E 


Kei-6 . 


. . 1865 






^n ^ 


Mei-ji 


. . 1868 








2Lli jftu 


Em-po nen sei 


ft 7C 


Gen-ki nen sei 
= made in the /tal $35 
Gen-ki period ^pC .*^C 
(A.D. 1570-73). 


= made in the 
Em-po period 
(A.D. 1673-81). 


>L J&* 


PS vft 


Mei-ji nen To-yen 


\i/ I^Tv 


ret .vz 


sei made by 


'^y's^j V | '/ j 


p^lj J[J 


To-yen in the 


V^' Xi^' 




Mei-ji period 




M < 


(A.D. 1868- ). 


^ -^ 






*! /f> =made in the frp 1 1 
^ fW Bun-kwa period | j^_^> 

(A.D. 1804-1818). ^j . 


Tai min nen sei 
= made in the 
Tai min dynasty 
i.e. The Great 
Ming dynasty of 
the Chinese 






(A.D. 1368-1644). 



JAPANESE POTTERY HIZEN, BIZEN 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 




DESCRIPTION. 



tr 

t 



*t- 



L. 




Hizen 



Shichi ju ni sai 
Niraku saku = 

made by 

S"iraku at the age 
of 72 years 
c. 1800 



Gorohachi. 

Mark on a copy 

of old Corean 

ware, c. 1800. 

The original 

5orohachi worked 

in the i6th cent. 



Kameyama 
igth cent. 



Bogasaki, in 
Nagasaki 
1830-43 



Bo (for Bogasaki) 



\Iikaiua for 
Mikawaji 
c. 1820 



Shoto 
c. 1800 





Prov. of Bizen 

Various marks 
used by potters to 

identify wares 
fired in the public 

kilns 
1 7th cent. 



Cho 
1 8th cent. 



Ka ichi 
c. 1680 



Kimura Uji 
1780-1830 



Riku 
1780-1830 



Totei 
1 9th cent. 



Dai Nippon Imbe 

to = Imbe ware of 

great Japan 

igth cent. 

Terami 
c. 1850 



K'wa-bo 
1 8th cent 



i6o 



JAPANESE POTTERY BIZEN, SETTSU 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





Bizen 

Kiyo-chika 
igth cent. 



Dai Nippon 

Imbe to (see p. 1 59) 

and Kimura 

Kiyochika 



Naoyoshi 
1 8th cent. 



Yoshida tsukuru 

= made by 

Yoshida 

c. 1840 



Mori 



Okayama 
igth cent. 



Mi t ski age 



Mushiage 
Makuzu 
c. 1830 









Tsushima 

Shiga 
c. 1820 



Tosa 

Oa'o 
1 9th cent. 



Sokan tsukuru = 

made by Sokan 

c. 1680 



Settsu 

Naniwa (old 

name of Osaka) 

c. 1680 



Kosobe and 

Shichi ju rojin 

Tai-nen sho = 

painted byTainen 

at the age of 70 

years 
i gth cent. 



Kikko (ti86i) 
at Jusan, Osaka 

1819- 
(see p. 179) 



Sakurai 

and no Sato = 

Sakurai (a village) 

in Sato 

c. 1830 



JAPANESE POTTERY SETTSU, OMI, HIGO 161 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


& 


Settsu 





Omi 


>n? 


Shosai at Osaka 
c. 1860 


* 


Yuko 
c. 1850 


JL 


Omi 


fe 




A 


Baizan 
c. 1850 


3 







.SWa 
1 7th cent, 
onwards 


% 


Shigaraki Uichu. 
Uichu, potter of 
Shigaraki 
1 7th cent. 


i * 


Mompei and 
Mompeizan 
c. 1830 


t 




% 


Bairin at Beppo 
c. 1800 

Omi 


\t3) 


Takuzan ; made 
pottery at Ycdo 
(1815-40) with 
Shigaraki clay 


1 


Koto = east of the 
lake (Biwa). 
Mark on wares 
made at 
Saiuayama 
1815-50 




Higo 
Higo 


18 




r 


ffira 

c. 1830 

Zeze Tora. 
Tora Kichi 
potter, at Zese 
c. 1850 


ft ^ 


Yatsnshiro 

Sogen 

Geu 

To 
Kiln marks (see 
note on Bizen 
ware, p. 159) on 
Yatsushiro ware 






@ i) 


^ ' 






igth cent. 



162 



JAPANESE POTTERY HIGO, KAGA, ISE 



MARk. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




n 





Higo 

Ya= Yatsushiro 
late 1 9th cent. 




Higo 

Amidayama 
c. 1797 



Shodai 
c. 1840 



Shofu 



Eaga 

Rinzan 
c. 1800 



Ju (for Okura 
Turaku) 
c. 1872 



Toko 

at Rendaiji 
c. 1806 





Kaga 

Ohi 
1780 onwards 



Ohi 



Yamamoto 
c. 1810 



Kinju (Mark of 

Mokubei in 

Kaga) 

c. 1807 

Ise 

Anto 
1740-1850 



Banko 

early i8th cent, 
onwards 



Akoji 
c. 1850 



Sahei 
c. 1640 



JAPANESE POTTERY ISE, YAMATO 



163 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 







Ise 

Banko 



Banko 



Nippon Banko 

and Date tsukuru 

= made by Date 

igth cent. 



Banko 



Nippon Yusetsu. 

Yusetsu was a 

potter who revived 

the Banko ware 

c. 1835 



Banko Fueki. 

Fueki was brother 

of Yusetsu 



Banko 



Bokusai 
i gth cent. 




e 

LU 




Ise 

Yurin, maker 

of Banko ware 

1 9th cent. 



Ko-tei = lake 
house: 

mark on 
Banko ware 

igth cent. 



fsaii'a 
c. 1810 



Yamato 

Akuhada 
1 8th cent. 



Akahadayamd 

(igth cent.) 



Bokuhaku 
(1850-70) 



Issai 

(Akahada 
or Hagi) 
igth cent. 

Seto-suke, 
mark on ware 

made at 

Yokka-ichi, 

in Ise 

c. 1860 
(also on an 
older ware 
made in the 
province of 

Echizen 

c. 1665) 



1 64 JAPANESE POTTERY SUO, SADO, AWAJI 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





Echizen 
Mikuni 



Fukui 
c. 1840 



Chikugo 

Yanagawa 
c. 1840 

Suo 

Iwakuni 
(Tada) 
c. 1770 



Iwakuni 



Kikko (at Tada) 
c. 1835 



Jusan-ken ; 
mark of Kikko 



Sado 

Sa-kin saku 
= made by Sakin. 
Kintaro " ware 
1800 






Awaji 

Mimpei 
c. 1830 



Nippon Awaji 
Sampei 
c. 1880 



Rissai (Awaji 
or Tosa) 
1 9th cent. 



Nil-no Gun-jiro 
1850 





Buzen 

Ho and a spiral 

mark of the 

potter Hosho 

at Agano 

c. 1800 

Denko (name of 

a ware made 

at Kataru) 

c. 1836 

Izumi 

Minato 
c. 1800, 

and Minato yaki 

= Minato ware 

1 9th cent. 



JAPANESE POTTERY IZUMI, KIT, IGA 



165 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DKSCRIPTION. 





i ^T^ 





Izumi 

Sen-shiu Sakai 

moto Minato yaki 

Kichi-ye-mon 

= Original 

Minato ware of 

Kichiyemon at 

Sakai in Senshiu 

(i.e. Izumi) 

i gth cent. 

Kwan-kei 



Iwami 

Nag-ami 
c. 1840 



Iwao (another 
mark of the 
same potter) 



Kii 

Kairakuyen sei 

= made by 

Kairakuyen. 

A name given to 

Eiraku Hozen by 

Prince Harunori. 

Kairakuyen sei 



Kairakuyen 

(in a gourd). 

The factory 

was in the 

Kairakuyen park 

at Nishiyama 

and was active 

from 1828-68 








Kii 



Otokoyama 

near Nishiyama 

1847-66 



Nan-ki 



Nan-ki. 
Otokoyama 
= southern 
Otokoyama 

Seinei. 

A mark said to 
have been used 
by Raku Tanniu 

in Kii 
c. 1840 



Zuishi 

c. 1790. 

A ware made 

at Meppotani 



Iga 

Iga 

c. 1800 
(Two forms 
of the mark) 



Iga yaki 

= Iga ware 

c. 1840 



Totei (at 

Marubashiro) 

c. 1850 



1 66 JAPANESE POTTERY NAGATO, HARIMA, IZUMO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





Nagato 

Toyo- ura-va ma 

c. 1846 
(The factory 
existed from 

1716 onwards) 



Totomi 

Shidoro 
1 8th and 
1 9th cent. 



Harima 

. Akashi 
(1700-1860) 



Akashi-iira 



Asagiri 

Sohei 

i gth cent. 

The Asagiri 

factory dates 

from 1700-1830 



Wafuken 
and Maiko 
(1750-1800) 



Hoyen : 

a mark used 

by Maisen 

who followed 

Wafuken 

c. 1800 




0. 



Harima 

Suma 

1800-50 

Two forms of 

the mark 

Tozan 

the hill from 
which the clay 
was taken for 
the factory at 

Himeji 
1826- 

Izuino 

Zen and Zenshi; 

A family workii 
at Fujina 
1750-1860 



Rakuzan at 
Matsuye 
1780-1840 



Unyei at 
Fujina 
c. 1830 



Izumo 

"Wakayama : 
late igth cent 

Chikuzen 

Takatori yo 

= Takatori 

pottery 

c. 1770 

Ka 
c. 1780 

Yamaka 

c. 1800 

(oven marks 

see p. 159) 



JAPANESE POTTERY CHIKUZEN, SANUKT 167 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




A 



Chikuzen 

(Takatori) 
Ki. c. 1820 



Taka (for 
Takatori^ 
i gth cent. 



Teiten 
c. 1850 



Soshichi 

at Hakata 

1827 



Soshichi 




Shun (for 

Shunzan) in Suo 

c. 1780 



Sanuki 

Shun-min Hiraga 

c. 1780 

(Hiraga Gennai 

took the name 

Shun-min) 






ft 



S/iit/,> Shun-min 
c. 1780 



Shun-min 




Min 



Minzan 

at Shido 

1780-1830 



Shinzan 
c. 1830 



Taka (for Ta&z- 

matsit)on " Inari- 

yama" ware 

1740-60 



Yashima 

at Shido 

c. 1800 



Yashima 
c. 1820 



1 68 JAPANESE POTTERY SANUKI, TAMBA, OWARI 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 







Sanuki 

Yashima 

Rinso 

tsakuru = 

Yashima 

(ware) made by 

Rinso. 

1817 



Yashima 



Yohachi 
1810-30 



San yo = 
Sanuki 
Pottery 
c. 1840 



Tamba 

Naosaku 
1835-60 



Owari 

Owari 
igth cent. 






Owari 

Bizan 

c. 1800. 

On "Ofuke" war 



Fuke. 

Mark on 
' ' Ofuke ' ' ware 
made at Akazu 

c. 1820 



Sobokai 
1800 



Shunu 
c. 1790 



Shunzan 
c. 1770 



Shuntai 
c. 1830 



Shunyetsu 
i gth cent. 



Shuntan 
c. 1800 



JAPANESE POTTERY OW ART 



169 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Owari 

Makusa 
c. 1780 



Gen (for Gempin) 
c. 1640 



Gempin 
on a copy of 
Gempin ware 
made c. 1730 



Chozo 

(at Tokoname] 
c. 1830 



Ikko 

(at Tokoname} 
c. 1850 



Sobaitei (at 

Akazu or Kioto] 

1 8th cent. 



Masaki (at 

Nagoya and 

Tokio). c. 1820 

Bokuko 

(style of Masaki) 
1 9th cent. 





Owari 

Inuyama 
1730 onwards 



Inuyama 

(which has the 

same ideographs 

as Kenzan) 

c. 1800 



Yoshitoyo 
(at Seto] 
c. 1780 



Toyohachi 

(at Nagoya} 



Toyosuke 



Toyoraku 
(or Horaku) 



Toyoraku. 

Four marks on 

ware made by 

Toyosuke at the 

Horaku factory at 

Nagoya. c. 1820 



i yo JAPANESE POTTERY OWARI AND KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Owari 

Bairaku 

(on Toyosuke 

ware) 

c. 1820 



Sasashima 

(near Nagoya] 

1750-1870 



Fuji 

(marks of the 
Fujimi family) 
1800 onwards 

Yamashiro 

Kuchu : on 

" Takagamine" 

ware made by 

Kuchu or Koho 

c. 1630 : 

and Ko in a circle 
(for Koho) 

Sei (for Ninsei) 
1 7th cent. 

Kiyo 

(mark used by 
Ninsei) 



Ninsei 





ffi 



Yamaslriro 

Ninsei : in a sea' 

the top of which 

is like a looped 

curtain (Maku-in 



Akashi 

Mark of Seisuke 

working with 

Ninsei 

c. 1680 

Seikanji 
(Ninsei worked 
there c. 1670) 



Onike : on ware 
made at Misoro 
early igth cent. 



Harima : mark o 

Tsuji Harima 

1720-30 



Tsuji 



Harima 



Fuji 

(at Kiyomizu) 
c. 1700 



Awata (Kioto) 
1 7th cent, 
onwards 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



171 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIIM n>\. 






Yamashiro 

Iwakura 

The Kinkozan 

family worked at 

Iwakura, moving 

to Kioto in 1750, 

where they used 

the same marks 



Iwakurayama 



Hozan (family) 
1 7th cent, 
onwards 
at Aivata 



Hozan 



Taihei (used by 
Hozan c. 1800) 



Bu (=?Bunzo) 
1 8th cent. 



Gobosaistt 
1 7th cent, 
onwards 



Taizan (at 

Aivata] 
1760 onwards 



Giozan 
1820-50 







Yamashiro 

Kinkozan (at 
Iwakiint and 
Kioto). 171!) 
cent, onwards 



Bizan (at Awata) 
igth cent. 



Tanzan (at 

Awata) 
1846 



Kozan 
c. 1820 



Kiyomiiu 

(i7th cent. 

onwards) 

a district of 

Kioto 



Kiyo 
(for Kiyomizul 



Kiyomizu 

Gusai 
igth cent. 



Km/an 
(at Kiyoin isu) 
1805 onwards 



Eisen (at 

Kiyomisu) 

c. 1760. 

An amateur 

potter, who nuidt 

the first Kioto 

porcelain 



172 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






JL. 






Yamashiro 

Roku. Mark of 

Rokubei I., at 

Kiyomizu 

(1737-99) 



Sei in a hexagon. 

Mark of 
Rokubei I. 
and III. 



Rokubei I. , and 

Rokubei III. 

(1820-85) 



Sei in a double 

hexagon. Mark 

of Rokubei II. 

1797-c. 1850 



Shichibei 

(1840-60), and 

Sei in a heptagon 

at Kivomizu 



Dohachi 

(The first Dohachi 

dates 1737-93 : 

Dohachi II. 

died 1856 : 

Dohachi III. 

c. 1840-75 

Dohachi IV. 

1875- ) 
at Kiyomisu 

Dohachi 







Yamashiro 

Dohachi II. 
(in a shell) 



Nina and 
Ninami : marks 
of Dohachi II. 



Kachutei Dohachi 

sei = made by 

Dohachi in the 

Kachu house 



Shuhei : at 

Kiyomizu 

c. 1810 



Yosobei I. (at 
Kiyomizu] 

c. 1800 

Yosobei II. 

c. 1830 

Yosobei III. 
c. 1850 



Tosetsu : at 
Kiyomisu 



Kitei (at 

Kiyomizu]. 

Four generations 

dating from 1790 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 








Yamashiro 

Kitei : at 
Kiyomizu (Kitei 
= tortoise house) 



Ki for Kitei 



Tei on a tortoise : 
mark of Wake 
Kitei, c. 1850 



A tortoise 



Zoroku 



Zoroku (mark of 
Genyemon at 
Kiyomizu} 
1841- 



Otani : mark 
used by Zoroku 



Seifu (at 

Kiyomizu} : three 
generations dating 
from c. 1844 









Yamashiro 

Tsuyen : at 

Kiyomizu 

c. 1800 



Ippodo 
c. 1850 

on Suminokura's 
ware 



Arashiyama 
c. 1830 



Asahitei 
c. 1840 



Shonsui Gorosuke 

at Gojosaka 

1840-60 



Kinsei 
c. 1800 



Kosai 
1840-50 



174 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 









Yamashiro 

Raku. This seal 

was given to 
Chojiro, son of the 

'orean Ameya, by 
Hideyoshi in 1588. 

The family have 

used it since, and 

the 1 3th generation 

is still at work in 

Kioto 

Raku 
(=: enjoyment) 



Raku 



Seinei : mark of 

Raku Tanniu 
c. 1840 (seep. 165 



Other makers of 
Raku ware at 

Kioto 

Jizan saku = made 
by Jizan. 
i gth cent. 



Sei-ji, igth cent. 



Ko-sa-o 
1 8th cent. 






Yamashiro 

Ichi-raku 

(Kioto) 

1 9th cent. 



Rakmvo 

(Kioto) 

1 8th cent. 



Kagura = 

mark on 

Okasaki ware 

of Raku type, 

made by 

Bunzaburo 

1850-70 

Kyuraku : 

mark used by 

Yasuke 

(Kioto), 

c. 1855 

Saburo : an early 
mark used by 

Kenzan, 

the celebrated 

Kioto potter 

(t 1743) 



Kenzan 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



MARK. 







DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



Yamashiro 

Sandai Kenzan 
= Kenzan of the 
3rd generation, 
early igth cent. 



Mokubei : at 

Kiyomizu 
(1767-1833) 

Koki kwan 

Mokubei tsukuru 

= made by 

Mokubei 

connoisseur of 

antique pots 



Asahi : mark 

on pottery 
made at Uji in 
1 7th cent, and 
revived in 1852 

Ryozen 

c. 1810 

(loth generation 
of the Zengoro 
family) at Kioto 

Eiraku : mark 

of Hozen, nth 

generation of the 

Zengoro farr.ily 

1825-53 
(see p. 165) 



Kahin Shiriu : 

mark used by 

Hozen 



Hozen 




DKSCKIITION. 





Yamashiro 

Omttro: mark used 

by Wagen (iath 

generation of the 

Zengoro family) 

c- 1853 



Ouchi-yama 
Seien : mark used 
(by Zengoro Wagen 



Tenkaichi 
Soshiro : mark of 

Soshiro, of the 
4th generation of 
the Zengoro family 
c. 1640 



Marks used by 

Zenshiro (brother 

of Wagen ) 

c. 1860 

The first reads 

Oniuro and the 

other Toho 



Otmva 
1 7th cent. 




Olffwa and 
Ken (for Kentei) 



176 



JAPANESE POTTERY KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION'. 





Yainasliiro 

Giyoku-tei 

(Kioto] 
1 8th cent. 



Makuzu family : 
1840 onwards at 
Makuzu-ga-hara , 
a district of Kioto 



Rengetsu : a 

woman potter 

1830-60, and 

a 2nd generation 

1860-80 



Riokozan : mark 
used by Rengetsu 



Rantei 
c. 1865 



K'wan-riyo 

(? Kioto] 
late 1 8th cent. 



Shuzan 
c. 1870 



Sei shi 
c. 1872 




Yamashiro 

Kiunken (Kioto] 
igth cent. 



Sei 



Shigen 
late 1 8th cent. 



Musashi 

Kenzan sho 

= Kenzan wrote 

it. Kenzan (see 

p. 174) worked at 

Iriya, Tokio 
early igth-cent. 




Kenya : mark of 
Miura Kenya in 

Asakusa 
iSso-c. 1860 



JAPANESE POTTERY TOKIO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Musashi 

Kaseizan 

worked near 

Yotsuya, Yedo 

c. 1780 



Rakurakuyen : 
.he garden of the 
Daimio of Ovvari 
in Tokio, where 
Krttery was made 
1804-30. 

Masaki was in 
charge for a time 




Corakuyen : mark 

of the private kiln 

of the Prince of 

Mito, at Tokio 

1832 



Sanrakuyen 

mark of private 

kiln of the Duke 

ofTosa, Tokio 

1848 



Kikko, who came 

to Yedo in 1855 

(see p. 160) 



Hashimoto 

Sanjiro : at lmad( 

1 9th cent. 






Musashi 

Shisei : at 
Matstiyama 
1 9th cent. 



Shoson 
igth cent. 



Gosaburo : 
at Imado 
c. 1840 



Sumidagawa : 

mark used by 

Kikkutei at Ytdo 

1810 



Tamagawa : 

probably Tokio 

c. 1850 



Koren saku 
= made by Koren: 
a woman potter of 
Tokio 
c. 1878 



178 JAPANESE POTTERY TOKIO, SOMA, SATSUMA 



MARK. 




DESCRIPTION. 





Musashi 
Makuzu Kozan 

tsukuru (in a 
gourd) = made by 
Makuzu Kozan ( see 
p. 1 76) who moved 

from Kioto to 
Yokohama in 1870! 

Makuzu Kozan 
(in a gourd) 

Iwaki 

Soma. 

Soma ware was 
made at Naka- 

mura, 1631 
onwards. It is 
usually decorated 
with a prancing 
horse tethered, 
the device of the 
Prince of Soma 

Yenzan : mark on 

Nakamura ware 

c. 1850 



Kanashige 
1850-70 



Shoda 

? 1 8th cent. 

on Soma ware 



Komaru 
1816- 
at Ohorimura 



Rakuzan 

1830 

mark used by 
Komaru 



MARK. 





y 




JAPANESE POTTERY SATSUMA, ETC. 



179 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Satsuma 



Satsu sei : on 

Tachino ware 

c. 1830 



Tei-ji on netsuke 

made at ? Kioto 

i gth cent. 



Mikawa 

Kakitsubata (an 
ris) and Okunisan 
(honourable pro- 
vince): marks used 
on Kusumitra 

ware 
c. 1840 



Five examples of 

Kakihan (hand 

seals) occasional!) 

used by potters 

in place of, or 

accompanying, 

the ordinary 

signature. 

They are mere 

flourishes made 

with the brush 

and do not repre 

sent actual 

characters. 






Miscellaneous 



Toshiro : 

iupposed to be the 

signature of Kato 

Shirozaemon 

or Toshiro, 

the originator of 

glazed pottery 

in Japan in the 

1 3th century 



Sen-ki : mark on 

Ohi-machi ware 

(see p. 162) 

1 9th cent. 



Jusan-Ken : mark 
of Kikko at 

at Osaka and Vodo 
(see p. 160) 



Soyen : mark on 

Raku ware 
(Kioto] igth cent. 



Bunki on Raku 
ware (Kioto] 
? ith cent. 



Sensuke seizo = 
made carefully by 
Sensuke : on Ota 
ware c. 1874 madi 

in the prov. Kii 

AY-AV 

on ware made for 
sale at the temple 
of A7&>near 7V 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN 

THE pioneer of Japanese porcelain was Gorodayu Go-Shonsui, 
who spent five years in China learning the art at Ching-te-chen. 
Returning to Japan in 1515 he made blue and white porcelain 
with imported Chinese materials ; but as he was unable to find 
the necessary clay in Japan, his success was only temporary and 
left nothing behind but the knowledge of painting in blue under 
a glaze. The requisite materials, however, were discovered in 
the province of Hizen by a Corean named Risampei, about the 
year 1605, and forty years later two potters named Tokuemon 
and Kakiemon, with some help from a Chinese, developed the 
art of painting in enamel colours. A flourishing industry now 
sprang up in the village of Arita and its neighbourhood, and 
much of the ware found its way to Europe on Dutch ships 
trading with Imari, the sea-port of the Arita district. This 
"Old Japan" porcelain falls roughly into two classes: (i) a fine 
white ware with delicate and sparse decoration of floral sprays, 
birds, and animals in brilliant enamels, blue, manganese-purple, 
green, and red commonly called Kakiemon ware; and (2) a 
heavier, greyer porcelain with crowded ornaments chiefly in 
dark impure blue, soft Indian red, and gold, obviously made 
for export, and commonly called Old Imari ware. Two other 
factories in the province of Hizen were celebrated in the 
eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries ; the one 
at Okawaji, under the patronage of the feudal chief of Nabeshima, 
and the other at Mikawaji, taken under the protection of the 
chief of Hirado in 1751. The Hirado porcelain was the finest 
made in Japan ; and the best specimens were painted in a pale 
but pure blue of great delicacy, a favourite subject being boys 
playing under an ancient pine, the number of boys, seven, five, 
or three, indicating the quality of the piece. 

181 



1 82 POTTERY MARKS 

In 1660 Goto Sajiro, a native of the province of Kaga, set 
out to discover the secrets of the Arita potters, and from his 
return in 1664 dates the growth of a flourishing industry at 
Kutani-mura and its neighbouring villages. Kaga porcelain was 
chiefly noted for its rich enamels blue, green, purple, and red 
either painted in the Arita style or laid on in broad washes over 
formal designs pencilled in black. In the nineteenth century a 
specialty was made of decoration in red and gold, which has 
come to be regarded as typical of Kaga ware. 

The Kioto potters did not turn their attention to porcelain 
till the end of the eighteenth century. Eisen was the first and 
he was followed by Mokubei, Rokubei, Eiraku, Dohachi, and a 
number of other clever potters. The Seto factories, destined 
to be the most productive in Japan, owe their knowledge of 
porcelain-making to Kato Tamikichi, who penetrated the secrets 
of the Arita potters in the first decade of the nineteenth century. 

Chinese influence is almost always apparent in Japanese 
porcelain, and the early wares, if marked at all, usually display 
a Chinese date, 1 symbol, or mark of commendation. Moreover, 
the better factories were directly under the patronage of a feudal 
chief who did not permit the workmen's names to appear on 
the wares. Thus it is not till the nineteenth century that true 
potter^' marks are common on Japanese porcelain ; and much 
of the older wares have no mark at all. Marks beginning with 
the words ''Dai Nippon" (see p. 186) may be safely regarded 
as of nineteenth-century date. 

1 Such as the nienhao of the Ch'eng Hua (Jap. Seika), Chia Ching (Jap. 
Ka-sei), Wan Li (Jap. Man-reki), Ch'ien Lung (Jap. Ken-riu) for which see 
P- 135- 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN COMMENDATION MARKS 183 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MAKK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



41 






TJO 





Bun-mei 

Kai-k'wa = 

enlightenment 

and civilisation : 

on Seto ware 

c. 1860 



Ho = precious : 

:i Arita porcelain 

c. 1 700 



Ho tei no takara 

= a gem among 

precious vessels. 

on Arita ware 

1 8th cent. 



Kin (gold) : on 

Okawaji ware 

1 8th cent. 



Ka = happiness 



Roku = 

emolument : 

on Hirado ware 

1 8th cent. 



? l-'u wan chili = 

made by Fu-wan 

on Arita ware 

c. 1800 

Fu wan = 

ten thousand 

blessings 






n Arita porcelain 



uku = happiness 

(common on 

Kaga porcelain) 



|iu = long life 



Doubtful seal 

mark on 
Kaga porcelain 
early i8th cent. 



Doubtful seal. 

mark on 

Kaga ware 

1 7th cent. 



1 84 JAPANESE PORCELAIN COMMENDATION MARKS 



.MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 








Doubtful seal 
mark : Arita 

porcelain 
? 1 8th cent. 



Sei = made (to 

order) : on Kaga 

porcelain 

1 8th cent. 



Ornamental seal 

mark on Arita 

porcelain 

1 8th cent. 



Gwan = a trinket. 
Kameyama ware 
early igth cent. 



Seigen = pure 

trinket. 
Seto ware 
1 9th cent. 



Fu ki cho shun = 

Riches, honour 

and eternal 

spring ! 



Swastika or fylfot 

symbol : the 

Chinese wan = 

ten thousand 



Five-leaved 

flower in red on 

Arita porcelain 

iyth cent. 




Flower in red, 

and mark of 

the Dresden 

collection incised 

Arita porcelain 

1 7th cent. 

Leaf mark copied 
from the Chinese 



fungus mark : 

copied from the 

Chinese 




Fungus mark 



Hizen 



Arita 



Nishina 
Arita ware 
1 9th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN HIZEN 



'85 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Hizen 












Hizen 


HP) 


Hizen Kuwan Yo 


MHP 




0C2 


Nembokuan Kizo 


ni_k 




Jt * $ 


sei = made by 
Nembokuan Kizo 




Hizen Sarayama. 
late igth cent. 


ff T 1 


in the Hizen 


I I [ fsjlj 




Si / *E^ 


government kiln. 






5?/ ' V 


Arita 








igth cent. 


*Sfo ~~~m 




* & 






Mikawaji Mori 


-*- ^r 






Chikara tsukuru 


|9 **J 


Nembokuan Kizo 
tsukuru = made by 


% )\\ 


= made by 
Mori Chikara 


^L .^^ 


Nembokuan Kizo 




at Mikawaji. 


^l fife- 
4^ /t 




is PJ 


late igth cent. 


^C. ^ 




ii) JF 


Hirato sei = made 


/JS? H 




'R J 


at Hirato 


^f* 9~W 


Nichi Hizen 


"Jj c^ 


(on Mikawaji 




Fukagawa 


" j 


ware) 


}\\ IB 


tsukuru = made 
by Fukagawa 
in Hizen. 




Masa-ichi : a 




Arita 


fit) 


netsuke maker : 


ft Ul 


late igth cent. 




Mikawaji 
igth cent. 


it E 


Hizen Kuwan 


^ 4^ 




/Vk rji^ 


Tsuji tsukuru = 


yK\| 


Zoshun tei 




made by Tsuji in 


~j* j 


Sampo sei = made 


ft ftj 


the Hizen govern- 
ment (kiln). 


^J rfi" '/^ 
I'J^ H 


by Sampo at the 
Zoshun hall 




late igth cent. 


_ 1 _^~ 


Mikawaji 


, i jj-irt 




"raJ* JPt^ 


c. 1830 


1$ flC 




3^- *5^ 




s s* 


Hichozan Shimpo 
sukuru = made by 




Kushide (comb 


^ 


rlichozan Shimpo. 
Arita 


^-. --,.-. .^.r-.'-j 


pattern) on the 
foot rim of 


2_ UV 


igth cent. 


II II HI 


Nabeshima ware 
made at Okawaji 






i_ ^. _ . . - 


i8th and igth. 


--j .j-. 


Kozan sho = 




cent. 


In 


written by Kozan. 
? Okawaji 
1 8th cent. 


tcQCi 


Hako sei = made 
at Hakodate 
c. 1850 




S/s^ 



1 86 JAPANESE PORCELAIN HIZEN, HARIMA, ETC. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION*. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



X 



3L fit 



Hizen 

Gorodayu Go 
jhonsui tsukuru = 
made by Gorodayu 

Go Shonsui. 
This potter was 
the originator of 
apanese porcelain 
in the 1 6th cent. : 
imitations of his 
ware are common 



Narau waga zo- 
en Shonsui Goro- 
dayu tokoro sei 
made in imitation 
of my ancestor 
Shonsui 
Gorodayu 



Kameyama sei 

= made at 

Kameyama 

1803-46 



Harima 

Himeji sei 

made at Himeji 

(see p. 166) 

c. 1826 



Sanyo Tozan. 

Tozan is the 

mountain where 

the material was 

mined for Himeji 

ware 




Settsu 

Sakurai no Sato 
= Sakurai in 

Safo 

igth cent. 
(see p. 160) 



n 




Kaga 

Kutani. 

Dai Nippon 

Kutani sei = 

made at Kutdm 

in Great Japan. 

igth cent. 



Tozan no in = 
seal of Tozan. 

Kiitani 
igth cent. 



Kutani Shiozo. 
late i gth cent. 



Dosuke chin 

gwan = preciou; 

trinket of 

Dosuke. 

Kaga ware 

1 8th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN KIOTO 



187 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 




B 



-it 



Yamashiro 



Kioto 



Dai Nippon 
iiraku tsukuru = 
made by Eiraku 
in Great Japan. 
Vlark of Eiraku I 
early igth cent, 
and Eiraku III. 
late igth cent. 

(see p. 175) 



Kachu tei 

Dohachi = made 

jy Dohachi in the 

Kachu house. 

Kioto 
c. 1840 



Heian toko 

Rokubei sei^ 

made by Rokubei 

the Heian potter. 

Heian is an old 

name for Kioto. 

early igth cent. 

(see p. 172) 



Yaki nushi 

Sosendo = the 

potter Sosendo. 

Seto 
c. 1840 



A ' 




- 

1 



3 

f 



I 



Yamashiro 



Heian toko 

Rantei seize = 

Carefully made by 

Rantei the 

Kioto potter. 

early i9th cent. 



Rantei sei gwan - 

pure trinket of 

Rantei 



Rantei 



Kisui seizo = mad 

by Kisui. Kioto 

late i9th cent 



Shimbei tsukuro- 
made by Shimbe 

? Seto 
1 9th cent. 



i88 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN KIOTO 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 






Yamashiro 

Kiyen tsukuru 

= made by Kiyen. 

(incised). Kioto 

1 9th cent. 



Dai Nippon Kosai 
tsukuru = made 

by Kosai in Great 

Japan. Kioto 

c. 1850 



X 

a 



Dai Nippon Seifu 
tsukuru = made 

by Seifu in Great 

Japan. Kioto 

1 9th cent. 




it 1L 




Seifu tsukuru 



Ogata Shuhei. 
Kioto. 
c. 1810 



Sahei seizo 
= made by Sahei. 
mark of Zoroku 

(Kioto) 
1 9th cent. 



111 








Yamashiro 

Kanzan sei sei = 

carefully made by 

Kanzan. Kioto 

igth cent. 



Kanzan kin sei 

= respectfully 

made by Kanzan 



Makuzu Kozan 

tsukuru = made 

ay Makuzu Kozan. 

Kioto 
1851- 



Fuji yo Makuzu 
tsukuru = made 
at the Fuji kiln 

of Makuzu. 
Makuzu is here 

the district 

of Kioto. 

early igth cent. 

Fuku shun ken 
Giyokusei tsukuru 

= made by 
Giyokosei in the 
Fukushun garden 

Kioto 
late 1 9th cent. 



= Roki, maker. 

Kioto 
1 9th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN KII, OMI, OWARI 189 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 




Eli 




Owari 


e? ^L 


Kayei g'wan 


#& -t 




Fnl ; 


nen Nanki 


fH x\* 




IE 3< 


Otokoyama sei 
= made at 


f^ ^ ^ ^^ 


Dai Nippon Seto 
sei = made at 5^ 


BJ 


Otokoyama, in 


/^ H 

' 


in Great Japan 


9* T^L 


southern (Kii) 




igth cent. 


Ul ^ 


in the first year 
of Kayei 
(i.e. 1848) 


iTQu 7^^^^ 




ls[ 


(.see p. 158) 


g 






Omi 

T" J I C 


fa* 


Owari 


s&i 


Koto east of 
the lake (i.e. 


& 




' /I 


lake Biwa}. 


J (^- 




ife 


early igth cent. 






XIV. 


(see p. 161) 








Meiho : a 


^JU 






signature on 






# 


Koto ware 


^ 




\fy 




il'jj^^* 
y f^^ 


Kato Kanshiro. 


f~\ *T 




^i 


Seto 


xj *'*' 




^^F\H 


late i gth cent. 


* 


Koto Jinenan ji 
= vessel of 


\^^i^ 




4 


Jinenan of Koto 


5 




% 


Owari 


11 

b^i^ V 


Seal mark on 
Seto ware 
1 9th cent. 


S 




^^^^^^^ 






Nagoya 






*o 


1 9th cent. 


^SL 


Kawamoto 


.9 




MI 


Masukichi. Seto 






^ f 


late igth cent. 



190 JAPANESE PORCELAIN OWARI, MINO, AWAJI 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 



MARK. 



DESCRIPTION. 





B 




f ? 

r i>, 



Owari 

San-han. Seto 
late igth cent. 

Kito ken Hoku- 

han tsukuru 

= made by 

Hokuhan at the 

Kito (curious 

pottery) house. 

Seto 
late igth cent. 

Seikan yen Goho 

sei = made by 

Goho in the 

Seikan garden. 

Seto 
late igth cent. 



Mark on 

? Korakuyen, or 

Mito, ware made 

at Tokio with 

Seto materials 

1832 (see p. 177) 



A tortoise : on 
Seto ware 
i gth cent. 



Dai Nippon 
Hansuke tsukuru 

= made by 

Hansuke in Great 

Japan. Seto 

late igth cent. 



Mino 

Togiyoku yen sei 
= made in the 
Togiyoku (jade 
pottery) garden 

Mino. i gth cent. 



3L 



5 



B 







Mino 

Togiyokuyen 

Gosuke sei 

= made by 

Gosuke in the 

Fogiyoku garden 

igth cent. 



Nippon Mino 

kuni Kato 

Gosuke sei 

= made by Kato 

Gosuke in the 

province of 

Mino, Japan 



Yamato sei 

= made at 

Yamato 

on eggshell 
porcelain 
igth cent. 



Awaji 



Nippon Aii'aji 

Kashiu Sanipei. 

late igth cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN COMPANIES, ETC. 191 



MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


MARK. 


DESCRIPTION. 


US. 1-4 


Nippon Tokio 









Hyochiyen gua 


v^ > N 7 




flfc * 


= painted at the 
Hyochi garden 


X^^ -w 






Tokio. 


J3* i\-J 'i N 






On Arita 


^^ 




SI 31 

ill _g 


ware painted 
at Tokio. 
i gth cent. 


$$, 


Nippon Tokio 
Kinshosha 
tsukuru = made 


Ll <J> 




; > x > ^^ >i~^ 


by the Kinsho 






"(p 


Company at 


j. 




>^^*v ; 4 N 


Tokio in Japan. 


iws 




* j* 


late 1 9th cent. 






X? 





* 


Oite Koransha 
Seizan sei 
= made by Seizan 
of the Koransha 


ft 




SEiEi 
m 


(company). 


vlj 






Mikawaji 


*t7^ 






late i gth cent. 


^M< 




ill it 








Ar 








f 


Shippo Kuwaisha. 
mark of the 
Shippo Company 
Owari 






^^ 


Jate i gth cent. 






&. 









INDEX OF NAMES 



Aalmes, 47 


Austin, 102 


Bentley, 112 


Aaron, 70 


Avisseau, 70 


Berg, c!e, 47 


Absolon, 102 


Avon, 57, 59 


Berger, 35 


Achard, 65 


Aynsley, in, 118 


Bergerac, 69 


Adams, in, n8 


Azulejos, 89, 90 


Berlin, 32, 37 


Aire, 68 




Berlot, 30 


Albany, 114 


Baan, 49 


Bern, 54 


Albarez, 90 


Bacon, 95 


Bertolini, 17 


Albissola, 21 


Baddeley, 109 


Bertrand, 28, 63 


Alcock, 108, 118 


Baden, 39 


Besio, G., 1 8 


Alcora, 64, 89, 90 


Bagnara, 12 


Betini, 13 


Alisandro, Maestro, 16 


Bagnolo, 10 


Bevans, 105 


Allen, 98 


Baguley, no 


Bevington, 105 


Allers, 28 


Bailey, in 


Bideford, 106 


Allies, 104 


Baker, 105 


Billingsley, 98 


Alluaud, 73 


Baldantonio, 17 


Bing, 52 


Alphen, van, 31 


Baldems, 27 


Bingham, 117 


Altrohlau, 40 


Baldessar, Maestro, 6 


Birch, 109 


Amberg, 37 


Baranowka, 53 


Bishop, no 


Amstel, 50 


Barbizet, 71 


Bishop's Waltham, 116 


Amsterdam, 49, 50 


Barcella, I. S., 17 


Blemont, de, 57, 59 


Andrea, Petrus, 13 


Bariselio, 17 


Blondel, 68 


Andreoli, Maestro G., 2, 7 


Barker, 114 


Bloor, 97 


Andriaensz, 45 


Barnstaple, 118 


Boch, 41, 51 


Angaron, 19 
Angouleme, 69, 75 


Baron, 64, 67 
Baroni, G. , 19 


Bodley, 117 
Boender, 45 


Anreiter, 40 


Barr, 101 


Bogaert, van der, 49 


Ansbach, 30, 35 


Bassano, 19 


Boisette, 73 


Antonibon, G. B., 19 


Basso, 66 


Bologna, 13 


Antonio, 13 


Batignolles, 70 


Bondino, 60 


Aolasdinr, 17 


Batista, G., 18 


Bone, 95 


Apiello, 24 


Batkin, in 


Bonn, 31 


Aprey, 67 


Batty, 113 


Bonnefoy, 65 


Apt, 67 


Bayeux, 70 


Bonnin, 115 


Aranda, 90 


Bay Ion, 114 


Bonpencier, 22 


Ardennes, 5. 


Bayreuth, 30, 35 


Boote, 108, 114, iiS 


Ardus, 66 


Beauvais, 57, 59, 70 


Booth, 109, 114, nS 


Arnstadt, 30 


Beck, van, 47 


Bordeaux, 73 


Arras, 72 


Bedeau, 63 


Porelli, 21, 65 


Arzobispo, 90 
Asciano, 6 


Beech, 115 
Belfast, 106 


Borgano, 18 
Borgo San Sepolcro, n, 


Ashworth, no 


Bell, 106 


22 


Astbury, 108 


Belle Vue, 102, 105 


Borne, 60, 6 1 


Atanasio, 15 


Belleek, 95 


Botero, B., 20 


Augsburg, 27, 35 
Augustus II., 26, 33 


Belleville, 71, 76 
Belper, 103 


Bott, 113 
Bottengruber, 35, 40 


Ault, 118 
Auspitz, 41 


Benedetto, Maestro, 5 
Bennett, 114 


Bottger, 26, 33, 132 
Bouchereau 67 



193 



194 



POTTERY MARKS 



Bouffioux, 28 


Capelleti, 21 


Cozzi, G., 3, 23 


Boulard, 60 


Capo di Monte, 3, 24, 89 


Crane, 116 


Boulevard de St. Antoine, 


Carassus, 24 


Creil, 69 


76 


Cardinal, 30 


Crette, 51 


Boulevard des Italiens, 76 


Cari, Caesari, 10 


Crevani, F., 19 


Boulevard Poissoniere, 76 


Carocci, Fabbri & Co., 8 


Crolius, 114 


Boulogne, 74 


Cartwright, 106 


Cros, 64, 90 


Boulter, 115 


Casa Pirota, 14 


Crossley, 116 


Bourdon, 73 


Casamene, 69 


Cushmann, 114 


Bourdu, 60 


Caselli, G.,'i2 


Custine, 55 


Bourdus, 77 


Castel Durante, 8 


Custode, 60 


Bourg la Reine, 69, 73 


Castelli, 21, 22 


Cutius, 4 


Bourgouin, 67 


Castillon, 68 


Cuzio, 4 


Bourne, 103, 108 


Castleford, 103 


Cyffle, 44, 55, 56 


Boussemart, 63 


Caughley, 95, 96 


Cyples, in 


Bow, 93, 95, 101 


Cauldon, 118 




Bowen, 104 


Caussy, 67 


Dacre, 116 


Bowers, no 


Chailey, 105 


Dagoty, 76 


Boyle, 99, 107 


Chamberlain, 101 


Dale, 96, 108 


Brachard, 77 


Chambers, 116 


Dale Hall, 108 


Brama, G., 15 


Chanou, 74 


Dale, van, 49 


Brameld, 99, 102 


Chantilly, 58, 70, 72 


Dalwitz, 39 


Brandi, F., 21 


Charles X., 79 


Damm, 30, 36 


Brannam, 118 


Chaux, 66 


Damman, 68 


Breitenbach, 38 


Cheatham, ni 


Daniel, 54, 109, 112 


Breslau, 40 


Chelsea, 93, 95, 96, too 


Dareuber, 50 


Bretby, 117 


Child, 1 10 


Darte, 75 


Breteuil, 80 


Chiodo, 20 


Davenport, 99, 112, 113 


Briel, van den, 45 


Choisy, H. de, 67 


Daves, 104 


Brindley, 106 


Choisy-le-Roy, 74 


Dawson, 102 


Briot, 59 


Chollet, 69 


Day, 116 


Brislington, 104 


Cianico, L. A., 21 


Deck, 71 


Bristol, 93, 95, 98, 100, 104 


Cimani, 16 


Delft, 43-49 


Britton, 103 


Cimatti, A. R., 16 


Denby, 103 


Broillet, 76 


Cincinnati, 114 


Derby, 93, 96-8, 104 


Brouwer, 46, 47 


Citta di Castello, 4 


Derennes, 67 


Brown, no, 118 


Clavareau, 71 


Deruelle, 75 


Brownfields, 117 


Cleffius, 45 


Desvres, 68 


Bruges, 51 


Clementson, 113 


Devers, 71 


Brussels, 51 


Clerici, Felice, 18 


Dextra, 45, 47 


Buccaro, 44, 94, 132 


Clerissy, 64, 65 


Dieul, Ci 


Buchwald, 31, 32 


Clermond-Ferrand, 66 


Dihl, 75 


Budau, 40 


Clevedon, 119 


Dijon, 64 


Budweis, 40 


Clews, 112 


Dillwyn, 105 


Buen Retire, 89, 91, 92 
Buergen, van der, 49 


Clifton Junction, 116 
Clignancourt, 75 


Dimmock, 117 
Diomede, 13 


Burgess, 118 


Closter Veilsdorf, 38 


Dirmstein, 30 


Burgh, van der, 45 


Coalport, 95, 96 


Diruta, 2, n, 12, 22 


Burslem, 100, 107, 108, 117-9 


Cobridge, 108, 112 


Disdier, 90 


Burton, 116 


Coccorese, C., 21 


Dixon, 102 


Burton-on-Trent, 117 


Cocker, 97 


Doccia, 3, 23 


Busch, 35 


Cochran, 119 


Doe, 104 


Byclok, 49 


Codnor Park, 103 


Does, van der, 47 


- 


Coimbra, 91 


Domenigo, 2., 17 


Cadborougli, 105 


Colebrookdale, 96 


Don pottery, 102, 103 


Cadogan, 102 


Colin, 66 


Donaldson, 101 


Caen, 74 


Cologne, 25, 28 


Donkin, 102 


Caffaggiolo, 4. 5 


Commondale, 116 


Donovan, 97 


CaWas, 89, 91 


Conditorey, 37 


Donyat, 104 


Caldwell, 107 


Conrade, 60 


Doorne, 46 


Caluwe, de, 44, 50 


Cookson, 109 


Dorez, 63, 72 


Cambray, 69 


Copeland, 99, 113 


Dortu, 55 


Cambrian, 104, 105 


Copenhagen, 44, 52 


Douai, 68 


Campori, F. Maria, 6 


Cornelisz, 48 


Doulton, 106, 119 


Candiana, 19 


Courcelles, 69 


Dresden, 26, 33, 34 


Cantigalli, 21 


Courtille, de la, 74 


Dreux, 80 



INDEX OF NAMES 



195 



Drey, 115 


Fishley, 106 


Gien, 70 


Dublin, 97, 106 


Fleming, 119 


Giesshubel, 39 


Ducroz, 113 


Fletcher, no 


Gilbody, 98 


Duesbury, 96, 97 


Fleury, 76 


Gjlle, 61, 71 


Dumas, 71 


Fliegel, 30 


Ginori, 23 


Dunderdale, 103 


Flight, 101 


Gioanetti, A., 18, 24 


Dupre, 66 


Florence, 2, 4, 13, 21, 22 


Giordano, 24 


Dupre-Poulaine, 68 


Florsheim, 30 


Giorgio, Maestro, 2, 7, 8 


Durot, 72 
Duvivier, 50 


Flower, 104 
Foescy, 76 


Girolamo, Maestro, 6 
Girolamo, R., 6 


Duyn, van, 46 


Fontebasso, 24 


Gironimo, 6, 10 


Dwight, 94, 132 


Folco, 20 


Giustiniani, 21, 24 


Dyck, K. %-an, 45 


Foley, 117, 118 


Glasgow, 106, 119 


East Liverpool, 114 
Eastwood, 109 
Eaves, 104 


Fontana, Flaminio, 9 
Fontana, Guido, 9 
Fontana, Orazio, 9 


Glass, 106 
Gloucester, 115 
Gliier, 29 


Ebenstein, 51 


Ford, 119 


Ginunden, 41 


Eckernforde, 32 
Edge, 108 


Forester, IIQ 
Forges les Eaux, 69 


Gobo, 10 
Godenius, 52 




Forli, 16 


Godwin, 112 


Eenhorn, 45 


Forsyth, 116 


Goggingcn, 30 


Eggebrecht, 35 
Ehrhardt, 54 


Fosse, 6 1 
Fotinger, 41 


Gonela, 5 
Goss, 120 


Elbogen, 40 


Fouque, 64 
Fournier, 65 


Gotha, 38, 39 
Gotzkowski, 37 


Elkin, 112 


Frain, 41 


Goulding, 98, 105 




Fran., Maestro, 16 


Goult, 69 


ElKvnngen, 29 
I'-lt'ui no 


Francesco (Urbini), n 
Francesco Durantino, 9, tj 


Graf, 54 
Graffiato ware, i, 4, 25, 




Frank, 104 


104, 106, 115 


Eneret, 52 
Englefontaine, 70 
Entoine, d', 70 
Epernay, 69 
Epinal, 68 
Ernst 28 


Frankenthal, 31, 36 
Frankfort, 32 
Franz, 29 
Frate, El, n 
Frechen, 25 
Frederick, 115 


Grainger, 101 
Grangel, 64 
Greatbalch, nt 
Grebner, 29 
Green, 98, 103, 105, in 
Greenwood, in 


Esione, 22 
Este, 24 


Fremington, 106 
Fruting, 54 


Grellet, 73 
Grenzhausen, 25, 28 




Frye, 95 


Gricci, 92 


Etruria, 112, 113 


Frytom, 48 
Furnival, 120 


Grind ley, 120 
Grocott, 108 


Kvers S5 


Fiirstenberg, 36 


Groen, 49 


A-<>^I3, 33 


Fuina, 21 


Groenlant, 48 


Fabriano, 12 


Fulda, 32, 39 


Grondahl, 52 


Faenza, 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16 


Fulham, 105, n6 


Gros Caillou, 76 


Falconet, 77 


Fumo, 92 


Grosbreitenbach, 38 


Fanciullacci, 23 


Ffmfkirchen, 41 


Grosse, 75 


Fattori, F. de, 7 




Grue, 21 


Faubourg St. Antoine, 74 


Goal, 49 


Gruber, 38 


Faubourg St. Lazare, 74, 76 
Fauchiez, 65 


Gabice, 6 
Galiano, 5 


Gubbio, 2, 7, 8 
Gudumlancl, 52 


Faucon, 67 


Gallet, 69 


Guirin, 56 


Fauquez, 64, 72 


Gardin, 61 


Guerhard, 75 


Fell, 102 


Gardner, 44, 53 


Guichard, 65 


Fen ton, no, in, 114 


Garrett, 99 


Guidobono, B., 20 


Ferdinand, King, 24 
Fernex, 77 


Gaudry, 64 
Gautier, 69 


Guillaume, 61 
Guillebaud, 61 


Ferrara, 16 


Gaze, 65 


Gulena, 54 


Ferraud, 64, 65 


Gennep, 25, 30 


Gustafsberg, 52 


Ferreira, 92 


Gentile, 21 


Gutenbrunn, 36 


Ferrybridge, 102 


Gera. 38, 39 




Feuillet, 76 


Geoffroi, 70 


Haag, 38 


Fictoor, 45 


Gerault, 73 


Hackwood, 109 


Fife, 115 


Ghail, 63 


Hadensee, 32 


Fifield, 104 


Ghisbrechts, 48 


Had ley, 101 


Fischer, 40 


Gide, 55 Haffringue, 74 



196 



POTTERY MARKS 



Hagenau, 44, 55 


Hoyle, 106 


Kretzschmar, 35 


Hales, io8 


Hubeaudiere, de la, 67 


Kreussen, 25, 28, 29 


Hall, in 


Hiibener, 115 


Kruisweg, 46 


Halley, 76 


Huet, 69 


Kruyk, 48 


Halsfort, 68 


Hull, 102 


Kulick, 48 


Hamburg, 31 


Hulme, 115 


Kunersberg, 29 


Hamilton, 109 


Hunt, 113 




Hammekers, 55 


Hylton, 102 


La Rochelle, 66 


Hammen, van, 48 




La Seinie, 76 


Hammer, 35 


Ilmenau, 38 


Lafonde, 50 


Hanau, 31 


Imoda, Eredi, 18 


Lafreri, A., n 


Hancock, 98, 101 


Ireson, 104 


Lahens, 67 


Hand, 115 


Irwin, 105 


L'isle Saint Denis, 75 


Hanley, 100, 108-110 


Isleworfh, 98, 105 


Lakin, 107 


Haunong, 31, 36, 55, 71, 74, 




Lamarque, 70 


76 


Jacomo, 6, 17 


Lamarre, 76 


Harding, 109, no 


Jansz, 46, 48 


Lambert, 71 


Hardmuth, 40 


Jeannot, 63 


Lambeth, 93, 105, 106 


Harker, 114 


Jersey City, 115 


Lammens, 51 


Harlees, 46 
Harley, in 
Hartley, 103 


Johnson, 103 
Jones, 112, n 6, 120 
Joseph, 63 


Lamoninary, 72 
Landais, 70 
Lane Delph, 100, no, in 


Haviland, 41 


Joyce, 116 


Lane End, 99, in, 112 


Heath, 104, 106, 109 


Jucht, 35 


Lanfrey, 55 


Heathcote, in 


Julio da Urbino, 16 


Langeais, 70 


Hebrix, 52 


Junius, 48 


Langiers, 65 


Hegner, 54 




Lapierre, 66 


Heichens, 30 


Kaendler, 34 


Large, 52 


Helchis, I., 23 


Kam, 47, 48 


Lassia, 74 


Hempel, 35 


Kean, 97 


Lauche, 34 


Hemphill, 115 


Keel, van der, 47 


Laun, van, 49 


Henderson, 115 


Keeling, 109, no 


Lauraguais, Comte de, 74 


Henneberg, 38 


Keil, 33 


Laurier, 69 


Henri II., 57, 59 


Keiser, de, 48 


Laville, 68 


Herculaneum, 98, 103 


Keller, 56 


Le Brun, 73 


Herend, 40 


Kellinghusen, 32 


Le Due, 67 


Hermansz, 48 


Kelsterbach, 38 


Le francois, 74 


Herold, 34 


Kennedy, 107 


L'italienne, 70 


Herreboe, 44, 52 


Kensington, 115 


Le Nove, 23, 24 


Hess, 49 


Ker, 54 


Le Riche, 77 


Hesse Darmstadt, 38 


Kessel, van, 45, 48 


Le Voulant, 66 


Heul, van der, 45 


Kest, van der, 45 


Lee, 101 


Hewelche, 3, 23 


Kieff, 53 


Leeds, 103 


Hey, 46 


Kiel, 31 


Letebvre, 60, 63 


Higler, 27 


Kiell, 47 


Lei, Pietro, 7 


Hilaire, 61 


Kishere, 105 


Leigh, 68, 118 


Hilditch, 100, in 


Kleftijus, 48 


Leihamer, 31 


Hill pottery, 118 


Kleijnoven, 48 


Lemaire, 76 


Hispano-moresque, 90 


Klentsch, 40 


Lemire, 44, 54 


Hochst, 30, 35, 36 


Kloot, van der, 46 


Leonardus, 49 


Hoeve, van der, 48 


Klum, 40 


Leopold, 56 


Hofdick, 47 


Knight, 112 


Lessel, 31 


Hoffmann, 54 


Knoller, 30 


Lessore, 113 


Hohr-Grenzhausen, 28 


Knowles, 114 


Lestrade, 66 


Holdship, 97, 101 


Knutgen, 27 


Lesum, 32 


Holland, 113 


Kodau, 39 


Levantino, L., 20 


Hollingshead, 114 


Kohnberger, 35 


Levasseur, 71 


Hollins, 105 


Koning, de, 45 


Liance, 77 


Hollitsoh, 40 


Kool, 46, 47 


Liaute, 70 


Honckebour, 28 


Kordenbusch, 29 


Liege, 51 


Honore, 76 


Korniloff 54 


Ligron, 69 


Hoorn, van, 47 


Korzec, 53 


Lille, 58, 63, 72 


Hoppestein, 46 


'' Kosel" mark, 33 


Limbach, 38 


Houk, van den, 45 


Kran, K., 27 


Limoges, 41, 59, 70, 73, 76 


Housel, 75 


Kraut, H., 27 


Lindner, 35 


Houze&Co., 68 


Kremer, 28 


Lisbon, 91, 92 



INDEX OF NAMES 



197 



Littler, 99 


Masselli, Th., 16 


Mycock, 116 


Liverpool, 93, 94, 98, 103 


Masson, 71 




Locke, 120 


Mathaux, 70 


Nancy, 70 


Locker, 97 


Mayer, 109, in 


Nantes, 67 


Lockett, 107 


Meakin, 120 


Nantgarw, 96, 98 


Locre, 74 


Medici, 2, 22 


Naples, 3, 21, 24 


Lodi, 19 


Meer, 106 


Nast, 75 


Loehnig, 34 


Meer, van der, 49 


Neale, 108 


London, 102 


Meigh, 109 


Neuchatel, 54 


Longport, 99, 112 


Meir, 104, 106, 113 


Neumark, 40 


Longton Hall, 93, 99 


Meissen, 2, 26, 33, 34, 35, 


Nevers, 58, 60 


Lonne, 30 


93i 10 


Newbold, in 


Loosdrecht, 50 


Memmingen, 29 


Newcastle, 102, 114 


Lorrain, R. le, 77 


Mennecy, 58, 70, 72 


New Hall, 99 


Lorraine, 56 


Menneken, 27, 28 


New York, 114 


Louis XVIII., 79 


Menten, 30 


Nicholas, 114 


Louis Philippe, 75, 76, 79, 


Mercati, 22 


Nicola da Urbino, 9 


80 


Mercer, 115 


Nicoleti, 19 


Lovatt, 120 


Merlino, G., 10, 17 


Niderviller, 44, 55 


Lowesby, 104 


Mesch, 48 


Nimes, 66 


Lowestoft, 93, 98, 101 


Mettlach, 41 


Noex, 16 


Lownds, 113 


Metzsch, 35 


Nonne, 38 


Ludicke, 32 


Meudon, 70 


Norman, 105 


Ludovico, Maestro, 16, 17 


Meyer, 54 


Norton, 114 


Ludwigsburg, 37 


Mezer, 54 


Nottingham, 103 


Luneville, 44, 55, 56 


Middeldijk, 45 


Nove, 19 


Lutri, 54 


Milan, 18 


Nowotny, 40 


Luxemburg, 50, 51 


Milde, de, 44, 46, 50 


Nuremberg, 29 


Lyman, 114 


Millidge, 113 


Nymphenburg, 36, 37 


Lyons, 58, 60 


Minden, 32 


Nyon, 44, 55 




Minton, 99, 107, 113, 116 




Machin, 108 


Miragai'a, 91 


Oiron, 57, 59 


Macintyre, 107, 120 


Mist, in 


Ognes, 70 


Madrid, 91, 92 


Moabit, 37 


Oldfield, 104 


Mafra, 89, 91 


Mobius, 35 


Old Hall, 109, 117 


Mainz, 31 


Mohr, 113 


Olerys, 65 


Maleriat, 63 


Moitte, 75 


Olivier, 71 


Malines, 51 


Mombaers, 51 


Omonz, 61 


Maling, 102 


Mondovi, 18 


O'Neale, 101 


Mallet, 61 


Monginot, 76 


OrleanSj 69, 73 


Malta, 92 


Mongis, 60 


Ortolam, L., 23 


Manara, Baldasara, 15 


Monnier, 73 


Ovaleros, 90 


Manardi, 19 


Montarcy, O. de, 75 




Manises, 89, 90 


Montauban, 66 


Padua, 19 


Mann, 109 


Monte, 5 


Pahl, 32 


Mansfield, 98 


Montelupo, 6 


Pajou, 71, 77 


Marans, 66 


Montpellier, 66 


Palissy, 57, 59, 69, 70, 71, 


Marburg, 31 


Montreuil, 74 


89 


Marcolini, 34 


Moore, 102, no, 117, 118 


Palme, 40 


Marconi, G., 19 


Morel, 74 


Palmer, 108 


Mare, 106 


Morfroy, 28 


Palvadeau, 67 


Marforio, Sebastiano di, 8 


Morgan, 115 


Pardoe, 100, 104 


Maria Salvador, 90 


Morice, 67 


Paree, 46 


Maria, Zona, 8 


Morreine, 67 


Paris, 69, 71, 72, 74-76 


Mariana, Simone di A., 10 


Morris, 100, 115 


Paristoe, Don, 19 


Marie Antoinette, 75 


Mortlake, 105 


Pascal, 71 


Marieberg, 32, 44, 52, 53 


Mortlock, 102 


Passau, 26, 29 


Marseilles, 58, 65, 73 


Moscow, 44, 53, 54 


Patana, 10 


Marshall, HI 


Moseley, 107 


Patanazzi, 10 


Martin, 116 


Moser, 41 


Patras, 60 


Martres, 69 


Mosley, no 


Pavia, 4, 18 


Marum, van, 46 


Mouchard, 66 


Pearl ware, 94 


Marx, 29 


Moulins, 69 


Pelisie, 70 


Mason, 100, no 


Moustiers, 58, 64, 65 


Pelleve, 73 


Masse, 56 


Musso, B., 18 


Pellipario, Nicola, 9 


Massarellos, 91 


Myatt, HI 


Pelloquin, 64 



198 



POTTERY MARKS 



Pencoyd, 104 


Quinquiry, 66 


Rye, 105 


Pennington, 103 






Pennis, 46, 47 


Radford, 104, in 


Saargemund, 56 


Perdu, 61 


Raeren, 25, 27, 28 


Sadler, 98, 103 


Pereira, 92 


Rainforth, 114 


St. Amand-les-Eaux, 63, 64, 


Perrin, 65 


Rambusch, 31 


74 


Perrotin, 77 


Rateau, 67 


Saint Amans, 70 


Perugia, 4, 10 


Rato, 91 


St. Antony's, 102 


Pesaro, 6, 7, 8 


Ratti, A., 20 


Saint Clemont, 70 


Pescetto, 20 


Rauenstein, 39 


Saint Cloud, 58, 63, 72, 80 


Peterinck, 50 


Ravenna, 16 


Saint Denis, 76 


Petit, 63, 71, 76 


Raymond, 67 


Saint Longe, 69 


Pfalz-Zweibriicken, 36 


Raynerius, E., 15 


St. Omer, 68 


Pfau, 54 


Recum, von, 36 


St. Paul, 68 


Pfeiffer, 30 


Reinthal, 41 


St. Petersburg, 44, 53, 54 


Pfluger & Co., 55 


Remey, 71 


Saint Porchaire, 57, 59 


Philadelphia, 115 


Renac, 69 


Saintes, 57, 59 


Philligellus, F., 6 


Renaud, 54 


Salimbene, 7 


Phillips, 102, 112 


Rennes, 67 


Salomini, G., 20 


Pichon, 66 


Reverend, 72 


Salomone, G., 20 


Pickman, 91 


Revol, 60 


Salopian, 95, 96 


Pidter, 106 


Reygens, 48 


Salt, 109 


Pietersz, 49 


Rich, 106 


Saltglaze, 107 


Pilkington, 116 


Richard, L., & Co., 18 


Salzburg, 41 


Pillivuyt, 76 


Rickhuss, 109 


Samadet, 66 


Finder, 108 


Ridgway, 100, no, 117 


Sand, van der, 49 


Pinxton, 98 


Rifflet, 28 


San Quirico, 1 1 


Pirkenhammer, 40 


Riley, 100, 108 


Sans, 106 


Pisa, 6 


Rimini, 16 


Sansont, 70 


Pisotti, 41 


Ristori, 60 


Sargadelos. 91 


Pitz, 27 


Robert, 65, 73 


Sarreguimines, 56 


Plant, in 


Rocco, G., 21 


Savino, G. P., 13 


Plas, van der, 68 


Rockingham, 99, 102 


Savona, 20, 21 


Plautier, Boncoirant, &Co., 


Rodgers, 116 


Savy, 65 


66 


Rodrique, 60 


Sceaux, 66, 73 


Plymouth, 93, 95, 98, 104 


Roesch, 38 


Schaffhausen , 25, 44, 55 


Possinger, 29 


Roge, 60 


Schaper, 29 


Poitiers, 67 


Rogers, 108 


Scharf, 29 


Portobello, 106 


Roland, 66 


Schelten, 40 


Pompio, 10 


Rolet, n 


Schie, 49 


Pont-aux-Choux, 75 


Rombaldoni, H., 8 


Schlaggenwald, 39 


Ponteinx, 76 


Rome, 13 


Schleswig, 31 


Poole, 107 


Romedi, 29 


Schmid. 29 


Popoff, 44, 54 
Poppelsdorf, 31, 55 


Rondebush, 115 
Rookwood, 114 


Schneider, 36 
Schoelcher, 76 


Potschappel, 39 


Rorstrand, 44, 52 


Scholl, 115 


Potsdam, 32 


Rosa. 30 


Schoonhoven, 45 


Potter, 75 


Rose, 0.6 


Schreitzheim, 29 


Potts, 108 


Rosetti, 18, 19, 21 


Schronvogel, 29 


Pouhet, 66 


Rossi, 91 


Schuman, 37 


Poulisse, 49 


Rotteberg, 38 


Scott, 102, 106 


Pountney, 104 


Rotterdam, 47, 50 


Sebastiano, N., 23 


Pouyat, 74 


Roubiliac, 96 


Seger, 37 


Prague, 39 


Rouen, 58, 60-62 


Segovia, 91 


Pratt, in 


Rouy, 63 


Seigne, 60 


Premieres, 68 


Rovigo, Xanto A. da, 9 


Seimo, D. M., 17 


Prestino, Maestro, 8 
Proudman, 114 


Rozenburg den Haag, 41 
Rue de Bondy, 75 


Seville, 90, 91 
Sevres, 58, 59, 71, 77-88,93, 


Prudhomme, 68 


Rue de Crussol, 75 


96, 100 


Puente de Arzobispo, 90 


Rue de Popincourt, 75 


Sewells, 102 


Puertas, 10 


Rue de Reuilly, 74 


Sforzza, 49 


Pull, 71 


Rue de la Roquette, 71, 74 


Shaw, 104, 106, 108 


Putten, van, & Co., 43, 49 


Rue du Petit Carousel, 74 


Shelton, icS, no 


Pynacker, 47, 48, 49 


Rue Thiroux, 75 


Shore, 98, 105 




Ruskin, 117 


Shorthose, 100, 109 


Cjuimper, 67 


Russinger, 74 


Siccardi, 20 



INDEX OF NAMES 



199 



Siegburg, 25, 27 


Tomaszoff, 54 


Viode, 60 


Siena, 5, 6 


Tomlinson, 102 


Viry, 64 


Signoiet, 60 
Silberkamer, 37 
Silvano, Franc, de, 10 


Tooth, 117 
Torquay, 117 
Tortta, 67 


Vista Alegre, 93 
Vitcrbo, 12 
Vivian, 115 


Simono, Maestro, 8 


Toul, 56 


Vizeer, 49 


Simpson, 106 


Toulouse, 66 


Vlack, P., 27 


Sinceny, 63 


Tournay, 44, 50, 100 


Voisinlieu, 71 


.Sitzerode, 39 


Tours, 70 


Volkstedt, 38 


Smith, 102, 113-15 


Tours d'Aigties, 69 


Volpato, 13 


Sneyd, 109 


Tremble, de, 70 


Vogel, 28 


Soliva, 64, 90 


Trenton, 115 


Vogt, A., 27 


Solon, 116 


Treviso, 3, 19, 24 


Voyez, 1 08 


Solothurn, 55 


Trinci, d'Angelo, 12 


Vron, 68 


Souroux, 74 


Tristan, 77 




Southwick, 102 


Trou, 63, 72 


Waert, van der, <u 


Spaandonck, 45 


Troxel, 115 


Wai, de, 49 


Spode, 93, 99, 107 


Tucker, 115 


Walker, 115 


Stadler, 5^ 


Tunstall, no. in 


Wallendorf, 38 


Staffordshire, 99, 100, 106- 


Turin, 18 


Walley, 112 


114 


Turner, 99, in 


Walton, 108 


Stawsk, 53 


Turner, 106 


Warburton, 99, 109 


Stebner, 29 


Tuscany, 4 


Watcombe, 117 


Steckborn, 54 


Twyford, 107 


Wear, 102, no 


Steel, 108 




Wedge wood, 94, 102 


Stephens, 95 


Ugubio, 7 


Wedgwood, 100, 102, 106, 


Stevenson, 98, no, in, 112 


Urbania, 8 


112, 113 


Stockelsdorn, 32 


Urbino, 9-11, 22 


Weert, de, 48 


Stockholm, 52 


Utzschneider, 56 


Weesp, 50 


Stockton, 102 




Wegeli, 37 


Stoke-upon-Trent, 99, 107 


Valaressi, Z., 16 


Westhead, no, 118 


Stonier, 118 


Valencia, 89, yo 


Wetherill, 105 


Strassburg, 44, 55 


Valenciennes, 64, 72 


Wileman, 117 


Stroom, van der, 45, 49 


Valladolid, 91 


Wilkinson, 104 


Strnlsund, 32 


Val sous Meudon, 70 


Willens, 28 


Strobel, 29 


Vannier, 72 


Wilson, 108, 109 


Sulzer, 54 


Varages, 65 


Wincanton, 104 


Sunderland, 102 


Vaud, 54 


Wintergurst, 29 


Swadlincote, 118 


Vauvert, 69 


Winterthur, 44, 54 


Swansea, 96, 100, 104, 105 


Vavasseur, 61 


Wilby, 39 


Swinton, 102, 103 


Veccbio, del, 21 


Witsenburg, 40, 51 




Vega, 91 


Wolfe, 109 


Talavera, 89, 90 


Vehlen, B., von, 30 


Wolfsen, 52 


Talor, 106 


Velasquez, 92 


Wood, 107 


Tamart, 68 


Venice, a, 16, 17, 23 


Woodnorth, 106 


Taney, 115 


Verhagen, 46 


Wooley, in, 112 


Tannowa, 39 


Verhuast, 49 


Worcester, 93, 98, ico, 101, 


Taunay, 76 


Verlingue, 68 


119 


Tavernes, 65 


Vermont, 114 


Wright, 106 


Taylor, 106, 107, 114, 117 
Tebo, 95 


Verona, 18 
Verstelle, 46 


Wrotham, 94, 105 


Teinitz, 39 


Vest, 28, 29 


Xanto, 9 


Terchi, Bartolomeo, n, 19 


Vezzi, 3, 23 




Terencio, 6, 7 


Viana, 91 


Yarmouth, 102 


Tereni, G., 6 


Vicenza, 24 




Tervueren, 51 


Vieillard & Co., 67 


Zamore, 90 


The Hague, 41, 50 


Vienna, 26, 40 


Zehrgaden, 36 


Thieme, 39 


Vilax, 64 


Zeschinger, 30, 35 


Thun-Klosterle, 39 


Villeroy, 41, 72 


Ziegler, 71 


Thuringia, 26, 38, 51 


Villingen, 27 


Znaim, 41 


Tolerazzi, 23 


Vincencio, 7 


Zsolnay, 41 


Toft, 106, 109 


Vincennes, 58, 71, 76-78 


Zuana, S., 17 


Tomaso, 10 


Vinovo, 3, 18, 24 


Zurich, 44, 54. 55 



INDEX OF INITIALS 



A., 4, 15, 21, 22, 30, 31, 32, 


B. & L., 118 


C. D. in monogram, 96 


35, 5, 53, 62, 74, 75, 90, 


B. A., 20 


C. D. L., n 


95 


B. A. S., 14 


C. F., 22, 27, 40, 60 


A. A., 73 


B. B., 59, 62, 72, 107 


C. F. L. in monogram, 55 


A. B., 54, 62, 77 


B. C.,62 


C. G., 7 


A. B. in monogram, 27, 35, 


B. D., 62, 77 


C. G. in monogram, 10 


36, 49 


B. D.- in monogram, 62 


C. G. P., 21 


A. B. C., 59 


B. E., 54 


C. H., 55, 70, 74 


A. C., 28 


B. E. in monogram, 51 


C. H. in monogram, 74 


A. D. in monogram, 50, 72, 


B. F. in monogram, 62 


C. H. O. N., 6 


76 


B. F. B., 101 


C. T. M. & Co., no 


A. D. T., 70 


B. G., 18, 21, 24 


C. K., 27 


A. D. W., 51 


B. H., 62 


C. K. in monogram, 48 


A. E. W., 23 


B. K., 27, 29, 30, 39 


C. L. in monogram, 10, 29. 


A. F. in monogram, 15, 17 


B. L.62 


45 


A. G., 23 


B. L. in monogram, 32, 50, 


C. M., 30, 62, 117 


A. G. in monogram, 62 


5', 74 


C. O., 62, 90 


A. G. G., 20 


B. L. C., 51 


C. P., 23 


A. H., 115 


B. laR.,69 


C. P. in monogram, 51, 74 


A. H. in monogram, 29 


B. M., 15, 27 


C. P. S., 46 


A. I., 48 


B. M. F., 15 


C. S., 62, 63 


A. K. in monogram, 46, 48 


B. 0., 77 


C. S. in monogram, 96 


A. L., 31, 40, 90 


B. P., 30, 117 


C. T. in monogram, 36 


A. L. in monogram, 64 


B. R., 69, 73, 77 


C. V., 38 


A. M., 28 


B. R. A., 68 


C. V. in monogram, 38 


A. M. R. in monogram, 15 


B. S., 17, 32 


C. V. K. in monogram, 46 


A. N., 40 


B. T., 63 


C. V. S., 45, 46 


A. P., 54 


B. V., 71 


C. W., 27, 49, 98 


A. P. in monogram, 10, 47, 
54, 67 


B. V. S., 45 
B. W. M. &Co., 118 


D., 7, 11, 30, 36, 39, 55, 63, 


A. P. K. in monogram, 49 


B. W., 31 


64, 66, 67, 68, 72, 75, 96, 


A. P. M. &Co., 115 




97,98 


A. R., 33, 73 


C., 4, 5, 12, 32, 48, 63, 66, 


D. with paraph, n 


A. R. in monogram, 48, 62, 


67, 79, 95, 9 


D. &J., 115 


64 


C. & H., 109 


D. A., 62 


A. S., 90 


C. A., 23, 64 


D. C, 68 


A. S. in monogram, 7 


C. A. G., 21 


D. C. O., 72 


A. T., 49 


C. B., n, 31, 47, 51, 62, 115 


D. D., 62 


A. V. in monogram, 70 


C. B. in monogram, 61, 66 


D. D. & Co., 103 


A. V. K. in monogram, 45 


C. B. D., 96 


D.E.X., 45, 47 




C. B. D. in monogram, 96 


D. G., 24, 62 


B., 12, 14, 29, 31, 32, 35, 


C. B. M., 63 


D. K. in monogram, 97 


40, 51, 60, 63, 65, 66, 68, 


C. C., 60 


D. L., 99 


73, 77, 95, 98, ioo, 101, 


C. C. in monogram, 21, 37, 


D. L. in monogram, 61 


114 


55 


D. L. F., 60 


B. with paraph, 16 
B. & B., 105 


C. C. B., 62 
C. C. C., 51 


D. I.. S., 66 
D. M., 13, 54, 62 


B. & G., 52 


C. D., 73 


D. P., 27, 54, 62, 68 


201 



2O2 



POTTERY MARKS 



D. P. A. V. W. in mono- 


G. A. O. F., 18 


H. V., 62 


gram, 46 


G. A. R. in monogram, 62 


H. V. H., 47 


D. S., 54 


G. B., 19, 28 


H. V. M. D., 45 


D. S. K., 45 


G. B. A. B., 19 


H. Z., 36 


D. V., 70, 72 


G. B. E. in monogram, 21 




D. V. D., 47 


G. B. F., 10 


I., 7, 29, 38 


D. V. K. in monogram, 45 


G. D. K., 45 


I. A., 28 




G. E., 27 


I. A. G., 91 ' 


E., 32, 35, 53, 62, 66 


G. F. A., 19 


I. A. H., 36 


E. B., 10, 75 


G. F. B., no 


I. A. W., 35 


E. E., 27 


G. F. F., 4 


I. B., 27, 62 


E. F., 41 


G. H., 63, 75, 115 


I. B. in monogram, 46 


E. F. B., 10 


G. H. in monogram, 48 


I. B. S., loo 


E. I. B., 109 


G. H. A., 62 


C., 48 


E. I. F., 54 


G. I., 16 


D. )4 6 


E. J. D. B. in monogram, 


G. I. in monogram, 19 


D. A., 45 


117 


G. I. B., 62 


. D. B. in monogram, 47 


E. K., 27 
E. M., 39 


G. J. in monogram, 119 
G. K., 29 


D. M., 46 
. D. W., 48 


E. M. S. in monogram, 48 


G. K. in monogram, 47, 48 


. E., 27, 105 


E. P., 27 


G. L., 62 


. E. W. E., 105 


E. Z. P., 23 


G. L. in monogram, 71 


. F. P. (reversed), 101 




G. L. M. E. L., 28 


. F. R., 12 


F., 6, 12, 15, 22, 32, 36, 39, 


G. L. P., 10, 17 


. G., 23, 48, 49 


49, 52, 62, 65, 76, 77, 91, 


G. M., 23, 62 


H., 45, 48, 104 


99, 102, 104, 115 


G. P. in monogram, 6 


. H. in monogram, 48 


F. & B., 40 


G. R., 18, 105, 112 


. H. K. in monogram, 48 


F. & R., 40 


G. R. D., 62 


L, 3i 


F. & U., 39 


G. S., 8, 20, 62 


. K., 27, 36, 46 


F. A. Z., 66 


G. V., ii 


. K. in monogram, 48 


F. B., 59, 62 


G. V. F., 64 


. L., 105 


F. B. in monogram, 63 




. M., 27, 41, 51 


F. B. B., 101 


H., 12, 31, 35, 36, 40, 47, 


. P., 5, 6 


F. B. F., 16 


52, 55, 68, 71, 76, 115 


. P. in monogram, 46 


F. C, 18 


H. &G., 113 


. P. K. in monogram, 47 


F. C. in monogram, 18 


H. &S., in 


. P. S., 60 


Fil., 64 


H. B., 27, 60, 62, 77 


. R., 15, 4i 


F. D., 9, 32 


H. B. in monogram, 31, 47, 


. S., 7, 36, 68 


F. D. V., 21 


52 


. S. in monogram, 29 


F. E. V., 90 


H. C, 67 


. T., 27, 115 


F. F., 4, 7, 9, 24, 39, 62, 64, 


H. & Co., 41 


. V., 28 


67 


H. C. D. in monogram, 27 


. V. D. H., 46 


F. F. in monogram, 39 


H. C. E. in monogram, 54 


. V. D. W., 49 


F. F. O., 9 


H. D. in monogram, 59 


. V. H., 46 


F. G., 91 


H. D. K., 45 


. V. K., 48 


F. L. in monogram, 72 


H. E. A. M. I. T., 54 


. V. L. R., 62 


F. M. P. in monogram, 71 


H. G. in monogram, 69 


. V. P. &Co.,49 


F. O., 90 


H. H., 27, 40 


. V. S., 27 


F. O. I. in monogram, 5 


H. H. G., 54 


. W. , 23, 105 


F. P., 6, 65 


H. H. K., 55 


. W. in monogram, 46 


F. P. in monogram, 64 


H. I., 105 


. W. & Co., 102 


F. P. R., 18 


H. K., 27, 31 




F. R., 7, 8, 14, 15, 60, 91 


H. K. in monogram, 27, 51 


J., 38, 9i3, 99 r 


F. R. in monogram, 16, 37, 


H. K. R., 54 


J. &M. P. B. &Co., 106 


62, 73 


H. L. in monogram, 46 


J. & R. G., 112 


F. S. N., 17 
F. V. in monogram, 72 


H. L. L., 76 
H. M., 28 


J. A., 28, 64, 73 
J. A. H. in monogram, 36 


F. V. F., 64 


H. M. in monogram, 36 


J. B., 28 


F. X.,9 


H. P., 108, 114 


J. B. in monogram, 62, 63 




H. P. in monogram, 51 


J. D. in monogram, 71, 101, 


G., 7, 17, 21, 30, 32, 37, 38, 


H. P. Z.,54 


117 


39, 48, 53, 62, 64, 65, 68, 


H. R., 8, 62, 115 


J. E. B. in monogram, 64 


73, 92, 98 
G. & Co., 101 


H. S., 30, 49 
H. S. R.,6o 


J. E. & S., 108 
J. G., 104 


G. A., 62 


! H. T.,6 2 


J. G. in monogram, 29 


G. A. in monogram, 8, 75 


H. T. I. S. T., 115 


J. G. K., 29 



INDEX OF INITIALS 



203 



J.H 31,45 
J. H. A., 30 
J. L., 68, 77 
J. L. F., 29 


M. & C., 107 
M. & Co., 99 
M. & M. G., 28 

M. & N., in 


P. A., 62 
P. A. in monogram, 65 
P. A. R. in monogram, 62 
P. B., 62, 75, 106, 108 


J. M. & Co. in monogram, 


M. A., 70 / 


P. B. C., 66 


"9 


M. A. in monogram, 6, 18, 


P. C, 67 


. P., 41, 71, 76 


3', 62 


P. C. G., 74 


. R., 28, 53, 66, no 


M. A. B., 19 


P. D., 46, 62 


. R. in monogram, 65, 73 


M. A. M., 35 


P. F., 23, 64, 74 


. R. &Co., 100 


M. A. P., 74 


P. F. in monogram, 64 


> 30 


M. B. in monogram, 32, 45, 


Pfr. & C., 55 


. S. in monogram, 60 
. U. D. H., 45 


51,52,53,66,99 
M. C., 21, 64 


P. F. Z., in monogram, 36 
P. G., 4 


. W. R., no 
J. Z., 30, 35, 71 


M. C. A., 64 
M. D., 62. 


P. G. in monogram, 21, 22 
P. H., 36 




M. D. K., 45 


P. H. in monogram, 36, 55, 


K., 29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 48, 


M. F., 4 


7 1 , 74 


K?B. L., 28 


M. F. F., 15 
M. G., 77 


P. I., 4. 
P. K., 27, 53 


K. et G., 56 


MO. G., 7 


P. K. in monogram, 29, 48 


K. H., 8, 32 
K. H. C. W., 34 


M. H., 28 
M. I. A., 24 


P. L. in monogram, 49, 60, 
72, 75 


K. P. M., 34, 37 
K. T. & It?, 114 
K. V. D. in monogram, 45 


M. J. in monogram, 75 
M. 1. W. C, 28 
M. K., 41 


P. L. A. T. in monogram. 4 
P. M., 30 
P. N.,62 


L., 22, 27, 31, 35, 37, 60, 63, 


M. M., 18 
M. M. C., 28 


P. N. M. in monogram, 115 
P. O. in monogram, 61 


66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 103 
L. et R., 74 


Mo, 7, 90 
Mo., 35 


P. P., 5, 10, 13, 104 
P. R., 74 


L. A., 62 
L B., 38, 76 


M. O. L., 50 
M. O. X., 90 


P. R. in monogram, 6 
P. V., 27 


L B. in monogram, 38, 73 


M. P., 28, 91 


P. V. B., 45 


L. C, 51, 62 


M. P. in monogram, 46, 62, 


P. V. B. in monogram, 4^ 


L C. in monogram, 15 


73 


P. V. C.,9i 


L. D., 62 


M. P. D., 27 


P. V. D. ., 49 


L. F., 62 


M. R., 66 


P. V. M. in monogram, 46 


L. G., 48 


M. R. in monogram, 62 


P. V. S., 45 


L. G. P., 21 


M. V. B., 49 


P. W., 55 


L. & H., 39 






L. I., 62 

'.* K., 49 


N., 4, 7, 11, 24, 53, 55, 60, 
68, 80, 97, 98, 99 


Q.,55,6 7 
Q. A. K. in monogram, 48 


-,. L., 20, 63, 72 


N. in monogram. 7,' 9 




L,. L. in monogram, 72 


N. & R., 38 


R -. 37, 3',35,38, 39, 49,52, 


'.. M., 62, 63 


N. B., 6a 


62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 73, 91, 


L.. M. S. in monogram, 116 


N. B. in monogram, 29 


95, of, 100 


- P-> 54, 75, 103 


N. D., 92 


R. & S., 118 


-.. P. in monogram, 76, 80 


N. F., 19 


R. A., 27 


. p. k., 47 


N. H., 62, 104 


R. B. & S., 103 


... Q. in monogram, 66 


N. S., 23 


R. B. F., 16 


L. R., 67, 74, 77 




R. C, 31 


-j. R. in monogram, 66 


O., 9, 14, 69 


R. D., 62 


^. S., 76 


O. in monogram, 9 


R. F., 79, 80, 81 


-.. S. in monogram, 76 


0. B., 73 


R. F. in monogram, 79, 60 


.,. V. , q 


0. F., 9 


R. H., 68, 77 


'-,. V. D. in monogram, 49 


O. H. E. C., 117 


R. H. in monogram, tot 


L. V. G., 36 


O. L. in monogram, 65 


R. g.,.38 


L. V. S., 45 


O. M. in monogram, 75 


R. G. in monogram, 17 


^ W., 27, 28 


O. P., 69 


R. M. W. &Co., 1 10 


^. W. in monogram, 29, 50 


O. S. X., 113 
O. Y., 65 


R. P. in monogram, 114 
R. P. C. O. M. I.. N.. 1.4 


VI., 6, 7, 12, 15, 22, 28, 31, 


R. S., 104 


32, 54, 62, 66, 70, 75, 97, 


P., 5, 6, it, 15, 32, 39, 41, 


R. *v R., 117 


99, "5. "7 


45, 48, 49, 53, 62, 63, 66, 




VI. in monogram, 10 


67, 68, 70, 77, 90, 98, 103, 


S., 4, 6, 7, 8, 20, 29, 31, 39, 


VI. with paraph, 5, 8, 13, 15 


115. "6 4', 49, 62, 63, 74, 81, 95, 


VI. & B., 107 


P. with paraph, 13 96 



204 



POTTERY MARKS 



S. with paraph, n 


T. &., 22 


V. L. in monogram, 62, 63, 


S. & G., 98, 105 


T. B., 62 


72 


S. & W., 102 


T. B. in monogram, 13, 14 


V. M., 92 


S. A., 22, 63, 64, 108 


T. B. & S., 118 


V. P., 17 


S. A. in monogram, 74 


T. D. L., 56 


V. P. in monogram, 65 


S. A. M., 10 


T. F. in monogram, 95, 101 


V. R., 61 


S. A. S., 61 


T. F. & S., 119 


V. R. in monogram, 15, 29, 


S. B., 8, 41 


T. G., 18 


36 


S. C. E., 4 


T. G. B., 118 


V. Z., 30, 35 


S. C. L. in monogram, 69 


T. H. D. in monogram, 71 




S. C. T., 63, 72 


T. K.,.39 


W., 24, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 


S. C. Y., 63 


T. K. in monogram, 39 


37, 38, 50, 54. 61, 68, 72, 


S. G., 62 
S. H., 98 


T. M., 104 

T., 95 


98, 100, 104, 112, 115 
W. A., in 


Sgr. P., 37 


T. P., 62 


W. B., 117 


S. I. G., 19 


T. P. in monogram, 91 


W. B. in monogram, 51 


S. L., 115 


T. R., 24 


W. D., 32 


S. M., 15, 18, 104 


T. R. in monogram, n, 18, 


W. D. in monogram, 47 


S. M. S., 54 


60 


W. E., 28 


S. N., 92 


T. R. F. in monogram, 24 


W. F., 104 


S. 0., 55 


T. Z., 71 


W. F. S., 28 


S. P., 66, 73 




W. H. T. in monogram, 117 


S. P. in monogram, 40 
S. P. in monogram, with 


U. &Cie.,. 5 6 


VV. K. in monogram. 47, 48 
W. M., 30, 50 


paraph, 5 




W. R., 31 


S. P. E., 72 


V., 6, 12, 16, 24, 32, 38, 64, 


W. S. & Co., 102 


S. Q., ii 


90, 91, 115 


W. T. , 39, TOO, 107 


S. R. , 20, 92 


V. A., 31, 92 


W. V. B., 47 


S. S., 104 


V. A. B., 28 


W. V. D. B., 45 


S. T., 73 


V. C., 17, 90 




S. V. E. in monogram, 45 
S. X., 73 


V. D., 62 
V. D. G., 18 


X., 9 
X. Z., 30, 35 




V. D. K. in monogram, 46 




T., 7, 18, 29, 39, 56, 62, 67, 


V. E. in monogram, 15, 45 


Y.,68 


68, 77, 104 


V. F., 64 




T. & R. B., 108 


V. I., 32 


Z-, 54. 55. 9i 



INDEX OF MARKS OTHER THAN 
NAMES AND INITIALS 



Amherst Japan, 107 


Circle with cross, 14, 63, oo, 


Fleur de lys, 24, 29, 61, 63, 


Anchor, 17, 23, 28, 31, 52, 


91 


65, 67, 73, 79, 91, 92, 104 


55. 66, 73, 74, 91, 95, 97, 


Caw, 43, 45 


Flower, 98, 138-140, 183 


99, 100, 101, 102, 112, 119 


C.hff, 117 


Fork, 9 


Antlers, 36, 37, 39 
Arm holding knife, 7, 40 


Cock, 21, 49 
Comet, 78 


Fortuyn, 45 
Fuchsia, 115 


Arrow, 29, 39, 77, 92, 95, 


Comma, 113 




108 


Crane, 116 


Garter, 113, 118 


Arrows crossed, 74 


Crescent, 5, 10, 24, 59, 96, 


Globe, 99, 119 


Arrowhead, 32 


98, loo, 101, 119 


Globe and cross, 20 


Astonne, 47 


Cross, 4, 13, 17, 18, 19, 23, 


Goose, 59 


Axe, 39, 46, 141 


24, 32, 33. 39. 52. 61, 62, 






63, 65. 69, 72, 91, 95, 96, 


Hand, 90 


Basket. 102 


104 


Hare, 125, 139 


Beacon, 32, 52 


Crown, 10, 12, 17, 19, 20, 


Hart, 45 


Bee-hive, no, 118 


21, 24, 32, 36. 37. 38, 39, 


Harp, 106 


Bell, 43, 47, 102, 138 


4*. 5', 52, 53. 55, 56, 69, 


Hayfork, 38 


Belts, 52 


74. 75, 76, 77. 79, 80, 9'. 


Head, 7, 46 


Bird, 34, 38, 103, 117, 119 


9 2 . 95, 9<5. 97, 98, 99, 3> 


Heart, 33 


Bisto, 118 


109, 110, 112, 113, 117, 


Historia, 9 


Blompot, 45 


118, iip 


Horn, 70, 72 


Boot, 45 


Crystal Ware, 113 


Horse, 36 


Bottle, 46 - 


Cuba, 105 


Hound, 118 


Bow and Arrow, 95 






Briquet, 51 


D's crossed, 98, 103 


India Temple, no 


Britannia, no 


Deer, 118 


Insect, 52, 140 


Brush and palette, 16 
Buffalo, 114 


Dolphin, 72 
Dome of Cathedral, 22 


Ironstone, no, 113 


Buildings, no 


Dog and Harp, 95 


J's crossed, 38 




Drab porcelain, 107 


Jade mark, 100 


C's crossed, 21, 37, 55, 79, 


Dragon, 56, 99 


Jupiter, sign for, 95, 98 


9' 99 






Caduceus, 33, 95, 118 


Eagle, 20, 35, 37, 53, 79, 80, 


Key, 30, 31 


Cambria, in 


81, 107 


Knot, no, 117, 118, 138,140 


Cambrian Argil, no 
Cambridge, 103 


Elephant head, 35 
Enamel Porcelain, 109 


L's crossed, 38, 71, 75, 76, 


Cards, 34 


Ermine, 99 


77, 79, 9 6 , 97. 99, I0 


Cartouche, 32, 105, 109 


Eye, 53 


Label, 73 


Castle, 41, 69, 70, 117 




Leaf, 95, 139, 183 


Chinese imitation mark, 9, 


Fab u la, 9 


Lighthouse, 20 


33, 46, 95, 96, 98, too, 106, 


Falcon, 20 


Lion, 23, 36, 50, 103, 119 


112, 125 


Feather, in 


Liver, 103 


Circle, 28, 37, 40, 46, 48, 60, 
65. 7i, 9. 9'. 92, 95. 


Felspar Porcelain, 09 
Fish, 20, 55, 138, 141 


Lovique, 119 
Lozenge,crossed,5,i4,33,i38 


101 


Flag, 115 


L Pkan, 47 



2O6 



POTTERY MARKS 



Merchant's Mark, 7, S, 18, Roos, 47 




27, 28 


Rose, 47 




Mountain, 20 


Royal Terra cotta 


porce- 




lain, 113 




Necklace, 69 


Rubella, no 




New Stone, 107 


Ruin, 91 




Nider, 54 






Nota, 9 


St. A., 64 




No. o, 50 


Sceptre, 37 




Numeral, 33, 61, 95, 97, 98, 


Scythes, 119 




109, 113, 140 


Semi-china, 108 






Sevres groups, 117 




Obelisk, 51 


Shears, 90 




Opaque china, 105 


Shell (conch), 6, 138 




Opaque porcelain, 105, 109 


Shield, 4, 10, 20, 31, 


33, 35, 


Orb, 37 


36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 


49, 59, 




68, 90, 1 1 8, 119 




Pearl ware, 103 


Shield with cross, 16, 


18 


Pentagram, 20 


Ship, 112, 119 




Phoenix, 113 


Sign board, 34 




Pipes, 30, 76 
Prince of Wales's feathers, 


Snake, 28, 53 
Spiral, 14 




99, in 


Spires, 41 






Stag, 50 




Quatrefoil, 68, 69, 71, 103 


Star, 4, 19, 24, 47, 90 






Staves, crossed, 38, 39 


, 5, 54 


R, 52 


Stone China, 107, 10 


3, 109, 


R's crossed, 117 


112, 114, 117 




Regina, 113 


Stone Ware, no 




Registration mark, 113 


Stork, 41, 50, 140 




R n, 39 


Sun, 20, 72, 97, zoo 





Swan, 119 
Sword, 15, 95 

Swords, crossed, 33, 34, 35, 
38, 39, 50, 74, 95, 96, 97, 

98, TOO 

Terre de Lorraine, 56 
Thart, 45 
Tillenberg, 113 
Tower, 41, 50 

Torches crossed, 74 

To 
ree, 28, 92 

Trefoil, 38 

Triangle, 20, 34, 53, 54, 67, 

92, 96, 97, 108, 140 
Triangles crossed, 24, 36 
Trident, 5, 8, 14, 95, 100 
Tripod, 97 
Trumpet, 20 

V's crossed, 71, 73 
Vase, 7, 8, in, 113, 118, 138, 
140 

Warranted Staffordshire, 

in, 113 

Wheel, 30, 35, 36 
Windmill, 75 
Workman's Signs, 34, 101 
Wreath, 39, 99, 100, 102, 

105, 118 



INDEX OF ORIENTAL MARKS 
AND NAMES 



Aagami, 123 


Buccaro, 132 


Denko, 164 


Auhmad, 124 
Abolo, 124 
Abou-1-iizz, 124 


Bunki, 179 
Bun-mei Kai-k'wa, 183 
Bunzaburo, 174 


Dohachi, 172, iSi, 187 
Dosuke, 1 86 
Dresden Collection. 140. 


Agano, 164 


Bunzo, 171 


.84 


Ahmed, 125 


Buzen, 164 




Al lien chen shang, 147 
Aioub, 123 


Cairo, 121-125 


Echizen, 163, 164 


Akahada, 163 
Akashi, 166, 170 


Canton, 128, 132, 152 
" Cash," 138, 141 


fc-gyp'. 121-125 

Eiraku, 155, 165, 175, 187 


Akazu, 168, 169 
Akoji, 162 
Ameya, 153, 174 
Amidayama, 162 
Anatolian, 125 
Arashiyama, 173 
Arita ; 181-185, 191 
Asahi, 175 
Asahitei, 173 
Asagiri, 166 
Asakusa, 176 
Awaji, 164, 190 


Ch'a, 150 
Ch'ang ming fu kuei, 146 
Chang Ming-kao, 149 
Chao-chin, 149 
Charaf, 124 
Chen, 148 
Ch'en mu chih, 149 
Chen yu, 148 
Cheng ku shih, 149 
Ch'i chen ju yu, 146 
Chi hsiang ju i, 144 
Ch'i shih pao ting, 146 


Eisen, 171, 182 
El Barrany, 124 
Kl Chaer, 124 
El Chamy, 121, 123 
El Kakiil. 124 
El Hermizi, 123 
El Istaz, 124 
El Masry, 123 
El Mouslem, 124 
El Siouaz, 124 
El Taurizi, 123 
Empress Dowager, 14* 


Awata, 154, 170, 171 


Chiang t'ang, 150 




Axe, 141 


Ch'ien yuan, 152 


Fa, 149 




Chih, 149 


Fathh, 124 


Hairaku, 170 


Chikugo, 164 


Fish, 138, 141 


Bairin, 161 


Chikuzen, 166, 167 


Flower, 139, 140, 184 


Baizan, 161 


Chin-yiian-yu, 152 


Fostat, 121-125 


Banko, 154, 162, 163 


Chinese marks, imitation or, 


Fu, 146 


Banyo, 186 


125 


Fu fan chih tsao, 149 


Baragon Turned, 149 
Bell, 138 


Ch'ing. 146 
Ching-te-chen, 128 


Fu ki cho shun, 184 
Fu kuei thin ch'i, 146 


Beppo, 161 


Chiu, 150 


Fu shou, 146 


Bism, 123 


Cho, 159 


Fu wan, 183 


Biwa, 161, 189 


Chojiro, 153, 174 


Fuchien, 128 


Bizan, 168, 171 


Chozo, 169 


Fueki, 163 


Bizen, 154, 159, 160 


Chu shih chu, 151 


Fuku, 183 


Bo, 159 


Ch'uan, 148 


Fuku shun ken, 188 


Bogasaki, 159 


ChQn-chou, 127 


Fuji, 170 


Bokuhaku, 163 


Chung ch'eng, 50 


Fujimi, 170 


Bokuko, 169 


Companies, 191 


Fujina, 166 


Bokusai, 163 


Cyclical dates, 129, 133 


Fukagawa, 185 


Books, 141 




Fukui, 164 


Brush, 141 


Damascus, 121 


Fungus, 139, 184 


Bu, 171 


Date, 163 


Fylfot, 141, 184 


207 



208 



POTTERY MARKS 



G., 151 


Hoko, 178 


Karatsu, 154 


Gempin, 169 


Hokuhan, 190 


Kaseizan, 177 


Gen, 161, 169 


Horaku, 169 


Kashiu Sampei, 190 


Genyemon, 173 


Hosho, 164 


Kataru, 164 


Gha'iby, 121, 123 


Hoyei, 178 


Kato, 182, 189 


Ghazal, 123 


Hoyen, 166 


Kawamoto, 189 


Giozan, 171 


Hoyu, 178 


Ken, 175 


Giyokusei, 188 


Hozan, 154, 171 


Kentei, 175 


Giyokutei, 176 


Hozen, 155, 165, 175 


Kenzan, 154, 155, 169, 174- 


Gobosatsu, 171 


Hsi ch'en ku wan, 144 


176 


Goho, 190 


Hsi yii, 147 


Kenya, 176 


Gojosaka, 173 


Hsieh chu, 150 


Kichiyemon, 165 


Gombroon, 122, 125 


Hsing, 148 


Kii, 155, 158, 165, 179, 


Gorodayu, 181, 186 


Huang-yiin, 152 


189 


Gorohachi, 159 


Hui Meng-ch'en, 152 


Kikko, 160, 164, 177, 179 


Gorosuke, 173 


Hyochiyen, 191 


Kikkutei, 177 


Gosaburo, 177 




Kimura, 159, 160 


Gosuke, 190 


Ichiraku, 174 


Kin, 183 


Goto, 182 


Iga, 165 


Kinju, 162 


Gwan, 184 


Ikko, 169 


Kinkozan, 154, 171 




Imado, 177 


Kinsei, 173 


Hagi, 154, 163 


Imari, 93 


Kinshosha, 191 


Hakata, 167 


Imbe, 159, 1 60 


Kintaro, 164 


Hako, 185 


Inariyama, 167 


Kioto, 154, 169, 170-176, 


Hakodate, 185 


Inuyama, 169 


178, 179, 182, 187, 188 


Hall marks, 129, 142, 143, 


Ink, 141 


Kishiu, 155 


1441 !55 


Insect, 140 


Kisui, 187 


Ch'i yii t'ang, 143 


Ippodo, 173 


Kitei, 172, 173 


Chih hao t'ang, 142 


Iriya, 176 


Kitoken, 190 


Chih Ian chai, 143 


Isawa, 163 


Kiunken, 176 


Chih yuan t'ang, 142 


Ise, 163 


Kiyen, 188 


Ching lien t'ang, 143 


Issai, 163 


Kiyo, 170, 171 


Ch'ing wei t'ang, 142 


Iwaki, 154, 178 


Kiyo-chika, 160 


Ch'ii shun t'ang, 143 


Iwakuni, 164 


Kiyomizu, 170-173 


I yu t'ang, 143 


Iwakura, 171 


Knot, 138, 140 


Lin yii t'ang, 143 


Iwami, 165 


Ko, 170 


Lu yi t'ang, 142 


Iwao, 165 


Ko Ming-hsiang, 152 


Shun te t'ang, 142, 143 


Izumi, 164, 165 


Ko Yiian-hsiang, 152 


Ssu pu chai, 144 


Izumo, 166 


Kochi-yaki, 155 


Ta ya chai, 144 




Koho, 170 


Tan ning chai, 143 
Te hsing t'ang, 142 


Jewel, 138 
Jinenan, 189 


Komaru, 178 
Korakuyen, 177, 190 


Ts'ai hsiu t'ang, 142 


Jiu, 183 


Koransha, 191 


Ts'ai hua t'ang, 142 


Jizan, 174 


Koren, 177 


Ts'ai jun t'ang, 143 


Jo shen ch'en tsang, 144 


Kosai, 173, 188 


Yang ho t'ang, 143 


Ju, 162 


Kosao, 174 


Yii hai t'ang, 142 


Ju'i,-i4o, 141 


Kosobe, 1 60 


Yii t'ang, 142 


Jui lu shan fang, 143 


Kotei, 163 


Yu tzu t'ang, 142 


Juraku, 162 


Koto, 161, 189 


Yung lo t'ang, 142 


Jusan, 160, 179 


Kozan, 171, 178, 185, 188 


Hansuke, 190 


Jus an-ken, 164 


Ku, 148 


Hare, 125, 139 




Kuan lien fang, 150 


Harima, 166, 170, 186 


Ka, 166, 183 


Kuan yao, 150 


Hatim, 125 


Ka ichi, 159 


Kuang-tung, 132 


Hayashi, 178 


Kachutei, 172, 187 


Kuei yueh shan chuang, 


Heian, 187 


Kaga, 162, 182, 183, 186 


144 


Hichozan Shimpo, 185 


Kagura, 174 


Kuchu, 170 


Higo, 161, 162 


Kahin Shiriu, 155, 175 


Kung ming fu kuei, etc., 


Himeji, 186 


Kairakuyen, 165 


151 


Hira, 161 


Kakiemon, 181 


Kuo, 148 


Hirado, 181, 185 


Kakihan, 156, 179 


Kushide, 185 


Hiraga, 167 


Kakitsubata, 179 


Kusumura, 179 


Hizen, 154, 159, 181, 184-6 


Kallass, 124 


Kutani, 182, 186 


Ho, 164, 183 


Kameyama, 159, 184, 186 


K'wa-bo, 159 


Hohei, 178 


Kanashige, 178 


Kwan-kei, 165 


Hoju, 178 


Kanzan, 171, 188 


K'wanriyo, 176 



INDEX OF ORIENTAL MARKS AND NAMES 209 



Kyuraku, 174 


Ninsei, 154. 170 


Sakurai, 160, 186 




Niraku, 159 


Sampei, 190 


Lai. 149 


Nishina, 184 


Sampo, 185 


Leaf, 138, 139, 178, 184 


Numerals, 137, 140 


San yo, 168 


Li-chih, 149 


Niino Gunjiro, 164 


San nan, 190 


Li-ta-lai, 152 




Sanjiro, 177 


Liang-chi, 129 


Odo, 160 


Sanrakuyen, 177 


Lien ch'eng, 150 


Ofuke, 168 


Sanuki, 167, 168 


Lin ch'ang fa, 1^9 
Ling nan hui chi, 151 


Ogata Shinsho, 155 
Ogata Shuhei, i83 


Sarayama, 185 
Sasashima, 170 


Lotus, 138, 139 


Ohi, 162 


Sato, 160, 186 


Lozenge, 138, 141 


Ohimachi, 179 


Satsu, 179 


Lu, 146 


Ohorimura, 178 


Satsuma, 154, 178, 179 


Lung-ch'uan, 127 


Okawaji, 181, 183, 185 


Sawayama, 161 




Okayama, 160 


Seal marks, uncertain, 151, 


Maiko, 166 


Okazaki, 174 


183, 184, 189 


Maisen, 166 


Okunisan, 179 


Sei, 170, 172, 176 


Maku-in, 170 


Omi, 161, 189 


Seifu, 173, 188 


Makusa, 169 


Omuro, 175 


Seigen, 184 


Makuzu, 160, 176, 178, 188 


Onike, 170 


Seiji, 174 


Marubashiro, 165 


Osaka, 160, 161, 179 


Seikanji, 170 


Masa-ichi, 185 


Ota, 179 


Seikanyen, 190 


Masaki, 169, 177 


Otani, 173 


Seikozan, 178 


Matsuyama, 177 


Otokoyama, 158, 165, 189 


Seinei, 165, 174 


Matsuye, 166 


Otowa, 175 


Seishi, 176 


Meiho, 189 


Ouchi-yama, 175 


Seisuke, 170 


Meppotani, 165 


Owari, 168-170, 189, 190, 


Seizan, 191 


Mikawa, 159, 179 


191 


Senki, 179 


Mikawaji, 159, 181, 185, 




Sensuke, 179 


191 


Pai shih, 151 


Seta, 161 


Mikuni, 164 


Pao, 148 


Seto, 153, 154, 155. *8a, 


Mimpei, 164 


Pao sheng, 131, 147 


184, 187, 189, 190 


Min, 167 


Peach, 139 


Seto-suke, 163 


Minato, 164 


Pearl, 141 


Settsu, 161, 186 


Mino, 190 


Peking, 132 


Shan jcn ch en wei, 150 


Minzan, 167 


Persia, 121-125 


Shang su, 149 


Mishima, 153, 154 


Pi ting ju'i, 131, 141 


Shell, 138, 141 


Mi to, 177 


Poku chen wan, 147 


Sheng, 148 


Miura Kenya, 176 




Sheng yu ya chi, 147 


Mizoro, 170 


Raku, 153, 154, 165, 174, 


Shichibei, 172 


Mokubei, 162, 175, 182 


'79 


Shido, 167 


Mompei, 161 


Kakurakuyen, 177 


Shidoro, 166 


Mompeizan, 161 


Raku wo, 174 


Shiga, 160 


Mori, 160 


Rakuzan, 166, 178 


Shigaraki, 154, 161 


Mori Chikara, 185 


Rantei, 176, 187 


Shigen, 176 


Muhammed Ali, 125 


Rendaiji, 162 


Shih fu, 148 


Muhammed Harbaty, 125 
Musashi, 176-178 


Rengetsu, 176 
Rhinoceros horn, 138, 141 


Shimbei, 187 
Shinzan, 167 


Mushiage, 160 


Rhodian, 121, 122 


Shiozo, 1 86 


Musical instrument, 141 


Rikk, 124 


Shippo, 191 




Riku, 159 


Shisei, 177 


Nabeshima, 181, 185 


Rinso, 168 


Shoda, 178 


Nagami, 165 


Rinzan, 162 


Shodai, 162 


Nagato, 166 


Riokozan, 176 


Shofu, 162 


Nagoya, 169, 170, 189 
Nakamura, 178 


Risampei, 181 
Rissai, 164 


Shonsui, 173 
Shop mark, 148 


Naniwa, 160 


Roki, 188 


Shosai, 161 


Nanki, 165, 189 
Naosakn, 168 
Naoyoshi, 160 
Nembokuan, 185 


Roku, 172, 183 
Rokubei, 172, 182, 187 
Ryozen, 175 


Shoson, 177 
Shoto, 159 
Shou, 145, 146 
Shuai fu kung yung, 147 


Nengo, 156-8 


Saburo, 174 


Shuang hsi, 144 


Nien-hao, 129, 134-6, 156 


Saclo, 164 


Shu-fu, 127, 149 


mm 

Nlko, J7Q 


Sahei, 162, 188 


Shukei, 172, 188 


- T . ' /y 
Nina, 172 


Sakai, 165 


Shun, 148, 167 


Ninami, 172 


Sakin, 164 


Shun-min, 167 



2IO 



POTTERY MARKS 



Shuntai, 168 


Terami, isg 


Wen chang shan tou, 148 


Shuntan, 168 


T'ien, 148" 


Wheel, 139 


Shunu, 168 


T'ien kuan tz'u fu, 147 


Wu chen hsien, 152 


Shunyetsu, 168 


T'ien ti yi chia ch'un, 144 




Shunzan, 167 


Ting-chou, 127 


Ya, 148, 162 


Shuzan, 176 


To, 161 


Yang-lin, 151 


Sobaitei, 169 


Tobo, 175 


Ya su kung shang, 144 


Sobokai, 168 
Sogen, 161 


Togiyokuyen, 190 
Tokio, 154, 176, 179, 191 


Ya wan, 148 
Yamaka, 166 


Sokan, 160 


Toko, 162 


Yamamoto, 162 


Soma, 154, 178 


Tokoname, 169 


Yamashiro, 170-176, 187, 188 


Sosendo, 187 


Tokuemon, 181 


Yamato, 163, 190 


Soshichi, 167 


Tora Kichi, 161 


Yanagawa, 164 


Soshiro, 175 


Tortoise, 173, 190 


Yashima, 167, 168 


Soyen, 179 


Tosa, 160, 164, 177 


Yasuke, 174 


Stone, 138 


Tosetsu, 172 


Yatsushiro, 154, 161, 162 


Stork, 140 


Toshiro, 153, 179 


Yedo, 154, 161, 177, 179 


Suma, 1 66 


Totei, 159, 165 


Yenzan, 178 


Sumidagawa, 177 


Totomi, 166 


Yi-hsing, 132, 152 


Snminokura, 173 


To-yen, 158 


Yohachi, 168 


Suo, 164, 167 


Toyohachi, 169 


Yokka-ichi, 163 


Swastika, 141, 184 


Toyoraku, 169 


Yoshida, 160 


Syria, 121-125 


Toyosuke, 169, 170 


Yoshitoyo, 169 




Toyo-ura-yama, 166 


Yosobei, 172 


Ta chi, 144 


Tozan, 166, 186 


Yotsuya, 177 


Ta'thino, 179 


Triangle, 140 


Youaz, 125 


Tnda, 164 


Tsai ch'uan chihlo, 131, 147 


Yii, 148 


T'ai yuan, 152 


Ts'ang lang Hi shiu, 150 


Yu chai, 151 


Taihei, 171 


Tsao t'ang, 150 


Yii feng, 151 


Tainen, 160 


Tsui yueh hsiian, 151 


Yu lai, 147 


Taizan, 154, 171 


Tsuji, 170, 185 


Yuan sin-hsing, 149 


Taka, 167 


Tsushima, 160 


Yiieh ch'ang, 152 


Takagamine, 170 
Takatori, 154, 166, 167 


Tsuyen, 173 
Turkish, 125 


Yuko, 161 
Yu-lan-pi, 152 


Takuzan, 161 




Yung-cheng yii chih, 150 


Tal, 124 


Uichti, 161 


Yung ch'ing ch'ang ch'un, 


Tamagawa, 177 


Umbrella, 138 


144 


Tamba, 168 


Unyei, 166 


Yurin, 163 


Tan kuei, 147 




Yusetsu, 163 


Tanniu, 165, 174 


Vase, 138, 139, 140 




Tanzan, 171 




Zari, 125 


Tatsumonji, 178 


Wafuken, 166 


Zengoro, 155 


Te hua ch'ang ch'un, 144 


Wagen, 175 


Zenshiro, 175 


Tei, 173 


Wan fu yu t'ung, 146 


Zeze, 161 


Teiji, 179 


Wan shih chii, 151 


Zoshuntei, 185 


Teiten, 167 


Wan shoti wu chiang, 147 


Zoroku, 173, 188 


Tenkaichi, 175 


Wang Sheng-kao, 151 


Zuishi, 165 



INDEX OF ADDITIONAL NAMES 



Aalmis, L, 248 


Duesbury, 120* 
Duve 248 


Knight, I20D 
Konigsberg, 248 


Adams, B., 1200 




Krog, A., 42* 


Anchor, i2OA 


Edge, J., t2oc 


Kruyk, 248 


Aprey, 4^ 


Elkin, izoD 


Kunersberg, 24A 


Barker, izoc 
Barlow, 12OC 
Bates, Walker & Co., 1200 


Eneret, 42* 
Engelhardt, 42* 
Errenreich, 248 


Lambeth, 1208 
Lane End, 1200 
I.arner, 24A 


Buthwell, I20C 


Fenton, i2oc 


Leeds, I20B 


Bayer, J. C., 42* 


Feuillet, 42* 


1. cuboid, G., 24A 


Bayreuth, 24.\ 
Belvedere Manufactur, 24A 
Bottengruber, 248 
Bourne, Nixon & Co., 1200 


Flight, I20A 
Foley, i2oc, i2ou 
Frankel & Schreck, 24A 
Frantz, 24A 


Liisberg, 42* 
lx>ckctt, 120B 
Loewenfeldt, von, 24A 
Ix>ngport, i2oc 


Bow, 1 20* 




Low Ford, ITCA 


Boyle, 120* 


Gildea & \Valker, 1200 


Lowestoft, 120* 


Bradley & Co., 1208 


Giustiniani, 24A 


Luplau, 42* 


Brameld, 120* 


Glass, i2oc 


Lyngbe, 42* 


Bridgwood, i2ou 
Bristol, 120* 
linen Retiro, 42* 


Goodfellow, I20C 
Grainger, Wood & Co., ITOA 
Grauers, Dr., 248 


Magdeburg, 2411 
Magrini, 24A 


Burslem, 1208, izoC, 1200 


Green, W., 1208 


Malaga, 42* 




Grue, F. A., 24A 


Mare, 12011 


C. Dale, 120" 


Guishard, 248 


'Martin, Shaw & Cope, 12OC 


Carey, 1200 




Marx, 24A 


Cauldon Place, 1200 


Hald, A., 42* 


Mayer, T., i2oc 


Challinor, I2OC 


Hall, i2oi) 


Meehl, Hans, 42* 


Chamberlain, 12OA 
Chantilly, 42* 


Hamburg, 24A, 248 
Hamilton, I2OC 


Meigh, J., I20C 
Mexborough, 1208 


Chelsea, 120* 


Hancock, R., I20A 


Milsom, J., 1208 


Choisy-le-roi, 42 


Hanley, i2oc, I20D 




Church Gresley, I2OA 


Harwood, i2oA 


Naples. 24A 


Clementson, 1200 


Hawley, I2OC 


New Hall, 120 


Clowes, izoc 


Heath, T., i2oc 


Newcastle-on-Tyne, 12OA 


Coalport, 120*, 1208 


Heath, W., 1200 


Nixon, 1200 


Cobridge, 1201) 


Hewitt, 1208 


Nottingham, 1208 


Cope, I20C 


Hochst, 248 


Nuremberg, 24 A 


Copenhagen. 248, 42 


Holm, 42* 




Courthope, 1200 


Horlogius, i20B 


Oldesloe, 248 


Cyples & Barker, I2OC 


Horn, von, 248 


Ondrup, 4 2 * 




Hughes, T., 120* 




Dawson, I., & Co., I2OA 


Hylton, I20A 


Paillart & Hautin. 42* 


Delft, 248 




Paris, 42* 


Derby, 120* 


Ireson, 1200 


Pesaro, 24 A 


Derks, Jan, 248 
Dixon Co., 1208 


iackson & Patterson, t2OA 


Phillips, I2oc 
Piiirton. 120* 


Di.xon, Phillips & Co., 1208 


arry. 4 2 * Pisa, MA 


Dee, K., IZOA 


hnson, "^ Port' Hill, I20C 


Donaldson, J., I2OA 


ones, z, 



211 



212 



POTTERY MARKS 



Potsdam, 248 


Smith, I20B 


Twigg, I20B 


Potter, 42* 


Smith, W., 1 20 A 


Tyne pottery, I2OA 


Proskau, 243 


Sowter, 1208 






Spode, 1208 


Vauxhall 1208 


Quimper, 42* 


Stevenson, 1200 
Stockton-on-Tees, I2OA 


Vecchio, del, 24A 


Rendsburg, 248 
Ridgway, 1200 
Rockingham, 120* f 

ROSS, J., I20A 


Stoke - upon - Trent, 120*, 

I2OB, I2OC 

Stringfellow, 1200 
Stubbs, I20B 


Walker, I20D 
Wallace & Co., I2OA 
Warburton, I20A 


Rotterdam, 248 

Salopian, 120* 
Saltglaze, 1208 
Salzburg, 248 


Swillington Bridge, 1208 
Sytch pottery, IZOD 

Taylor, G., I2OD 
Tebo, 1 20* 


Warsaw, 24A 
Wedgwood, 1208 
Whitening, I2OD 
Wildblood, 1208 
Williams, 1200 


Santa Cristina, 24A 


Tenniers, D., 248 


Wincanton, 1200 


Schleswig, 248 
Schmidt, J., 42* 


Thompson, J., 1206 
Thoune, 42* 


Wolfe, 1208 
Wolfsbourg, C. F. de, 243 


Schramberg, 24A 


Toft, John, I20B 


Wood, E. , i20B 


Sewell, 1208 


Toft & May, i2oc 


Wooden Box, 1208 


Shaw, I2OC 


Thun, 42* 


Worcester, I20A 


Shelton, 1200 


Tunstall, 1200 




Shuichard, 248 


Turner, 1200 


Yates, 1208, izoc 



INDEX OF ADDITIONAL INITIALS 



A., 120* 


H., 120* 


P, 248, 42*, 120*, I20A 


A.K. in monogram, 42* 


H B in monogram, 42* 


P. & H., 42* 




H E in monogram 248 


P. P., 2 4 B 


B, 1 20* 


H M in monogram, 42* 




B F S, 2 4 A 


H P, I20B 


R. H., I20A 


B. K, 24A 

B. W. & Co., I20D 


I, I2OD 


R. S, I20D 




I. G. P. F., 2 4 A 




C, 120* 


I. H., 248 


S, i 20* 


C. F. L. in monogram, 42* 




S & C, 1208 


C G W, i2oc 


J., 42* 


S & G, I20B 


C K, 2 4 B 


J A, 2 4 A 




C N, 248 

D., 248, I2O*, I20A 

D L, 120* 
D P, 248 


J. A. P., 42* 
J. D. in monogram, i20A 

f. L., 1208 
J. M. & CO., I20C 
J. & P., I20A 


T, 120*, I20A 

T. H. & Co., i2oc 
T M in monogram, 24A 

T, 1 2O*, I2OA 




J. S., 42* 




E K B, 1200 


J. W. & Co., I20A 


V., 248 




j y, i2oc 


V. E. in monogram, 42* 


F, 1 20* 
F & B, I20A 
F. L. in monogram, 24A 


K, 248 


V.H. in monogram, 248 
V L in monogram, 24A 


F. S. C., 24 A 


L, 42* 








W., I2OA, I2OB, I2OC 


G., I2OA, I2OC 


M, 42*, I2OA 


W H, 1208 


G. G, I2OB 




WP in monogram, 1200 


G. G. P. F., 24 A 


N, I20A 


W. P. C., I20A 


G L in monogram, 24A 
G. L. K. in monogram, 24B 


Or 1 , 1 20* 


W R in monogram, 24A 
W. S. Jun. & Co., I20A 


G M in monogram 24A 


O s , 1 20 A 


W. S & S, 1208 



INDEX OF ADDITIONAL MARKS OTHER 
THAN NAMES AND INITIALS 



Anchor, 120* 

Crescent, 120*, I20A, 1200 
Cross, 24A 
Crown, i2oc 

Etruscan, 1200 



Flower, 42*, 1200 

Horn, 42* 
Horse, izoc 

Indian Tree, izoc 

Saxon Stone, 1200 
Stone-China, i2oc 



Three wavy lines, 42* 
Triangle in a circle, 42* 
Trident, 120 A 

Wheel, 248 
Workmen's mark, IZOA 



INDEX OF ADDITIONAL ORIENTAL 
MARKS 



Chan ching chai, 1528 


Kung, 15211 


Shang ku t'ang, 1528 


Chang-chia, I52A 


Kung Liang-chi, 152 A 


Shu cli'ang, 1528 


Ch'en Ming-yuan, 152 A 


Ku yiieh hsuan, 1520 




Ch'en T'ien-sui, I52A 




Ts'ui, 152A 


Ch'en Wen-ching, I52A 


Lai Kuan, 152 A 




Ch'ien yin, 1528 
Chih ting, i$2A 
Chin-shih, i$2A 


Ma Chen-shih, 1528 


Wang Ch'ih-ming, I;JA 
Wang Ping-jung, IS2A 
Wang Pu-t'ing, i$9A 


Hsiu Lung-te, i$2A 


Nan ch'ing t'ang, 1528 


Yi-hsing, 152 A 


Jen ho kuan, 1528 
en ts'un t'ang, 1520 


San ho t'ang, 1528 


Yd chen, 1528 
Yii t'ang chia ch'i, 1528 



Printed ly R. & R. CLARK, LIMITED, Edinburgh. 



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FEB 2 . 1965 



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